Publications by year
Town R, Hayes D, March A, Fonagy P, Stapley E
(2023). Self-management, self-care, and self-help in adolescents with emotional problems: a scoping review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Self-management, self-care, and self-help in adolescents with emotional problems: a scoping review
AbstractThis study aimed to review the existing published and grey literature describing the concepts of self-management, self-care, and self-help, and to capture strategies or techniques related to these concepts, for adolescents with emotional problems. Emotional problems are rising amongst adolescents, yet timely access to specialist mental health treatment is limited to those with greater severity of mental health difficulties. Self-management, self-care, and self-help strategies may be used by adolescents with emotional problems both in terms of those waiting for treatment and to prevent relapse. Given the overlap in existing definitions and the lack of clarity around these concepts in an adolescent mental health context, a scoping review of the literature is warranted to provide clarity. Eligible studies were those involving adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with symptoms of emotional problems. Studies referenced self-management, self-care, or self-help, not involving a professional, in this population. Quantitative, qualitative, economic, and mixed methods studies, as well as systematic, scoping, and literature reviews, from 2000 onwards and in the English language, were eligible for inclusion. A systematic search was conducted of both published and grey literature. Databases searched included PsycINFO, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus. Mednar was also searched for unpublished studies and grey literature. Tables of themes, terms, and associated strategies are presented alongside a thematic analysis of the results. 62 articles were included. These were 20 quantitative studies, 14 systematic reviews, 10 qualitative studies, five review papers, four book chapters, four mixed methods studies, two dissertations, two meta-analyses and one scoping review and systematic review. Most of the included articles referenced self-help (n = 51), followed by self-management (n = 17) and self-care (n = 6). A total of 12 themes were identified from a reflexive thematic analysis of descriptions (and associated strategies) of self-management, self-help, or self-care in included texts. This scoping review provides clarity on the similarities and differences between how these concepts are discussed, and the strategies which are associated with each of these concepts in the relevant literature. Implications for policy and intervention development for adolescents’ self-management, self-help, and self-care of their mental health are discussed. There is considerable overlap in both the ways in which these concepts are described, and the strategies or approaches proposed in relation to them, supporting previous research suggesting these strategies should be grouped under a single term, such as “self or community approaches.” More research is needed for self-management, self-help, and self-care amongst marginalized groups as these adolescents may have the highest unmet need for mental health support. Abstract
Hayes D, Mansfield R, Mason C, Santos J, Moore A, Boehnke J, Ashworth E, Moltrecht B, Humphrey N, Stallard P, et al
(2023). The impact of universal, school based, interventions on help seeking in children and young people: a systematic literature review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The impact of universal, school based, interventions on help seeking in children and young people: a systematic literature review
AbstractReviews into universal interventions to improve help seeking in young people focus on specific concepts, such as behaviour, do not differentiate between interpersonal and intrapersonal help seeking, and often report on statistical significance, rather than effect size. The aim of this review was to address the gaps highlighted above, to investigate the impact of universal, school-based interventions on help-seeking in children and young people, as well as to explore longer term impact. Four databases were searched. Data were extracted on country of origin, design, participant, school, and intervention characteristics, the help-seeking concept measured (e.g. knowledge, attitude/intention, behaviour), the duration between baseline and each follow-up (if applicable) and effect sizes at each follow-up. Quality assessment of the studies was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. Overall, 14 different interventions met inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies were rated low in the quality assessment. Three constructs were most frequently reported a) intrapersonal attitudes towards help-seeking, b) interpersonal attitudes towards help-seeking and c) intrapersonal intended help-seeking. Findings around intervention effect were mixed. There was tentative evidence that interventions impacting interpersonal attitudes produced small effect sizes when measured between 3 and 6 months post intervention and that when effect sizes were initially observed intrapersonal attitudes, this remained at 3–6 month follow-up. Further work should pay attention to implementation factors, understanding the core ingredients needed to deliver effective interventions and whether embedding mental health education could help sustain or top up effect sizes from help-seeking interventions. Abstract
March A, Stapley E, Hayes D, Town R, Deighton J
(2022). Barriers and Facilitators to Sustaining School-Based Mental Health and Wellbeing Interventions: a Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Barriers and Facilitators to Sustaining School-Based Mental Health and Wellbeing Interventions: a Systematic Review
Despite an increasing focus on schools to deliver support and education around mental health and wellbeing, interventions are often not sustained beyond initial funding and research. In this review, the barriers and facilitators to sustaining mental health and wellbeing interventions in schools are explored. A systematic review was conducted using keywords based on the terms: ‘sustainability’, ‘school’, ‘intervention’, ‘mental health’, and ’emotional wellbeing’. Six online databases (PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE, British Education Index, ERIC, and Web of Science) and relevant websites were searched resulting in 6160 unique references. After screening, 10 articles were included in the review and extracted data were qualitatively synthesized using thematic analysis. Data synthesis led to the identification of four sustainability factors at the school level (school leadership, staff engagement, intervention characteristics, and resources) and one at the wider system level (external support). These factors were separated into 15 themes and discussed as barriers and facilitators to sustainability (for example, school culture and staff turnover). Most articles included no definition of sustainability, and nearly all barriers and facilitators were discussed at the school level. The findings suggest that more longitudinal and theory-driven research is required to develop a clearer picture of the sustainability process. Abstract
Moore A, Bertotti M, Hanafiah A, Hayes D
(2022). Factors affecting the sustainability of community mental health assets: a systematic review. Health Soc Care Community
Factors affecting the sustainability of community mental health assets: a systematic review.
Resources and activities offered by Voluntary, Community and Social Enterprise (VCSE) organisations could play a key role in supporting communities with their mental health. Whilst policy makers have become increasingly interested in using such asset-based approaches to improve mental health and well-being, the sustainability of these approaches remains underresearched. In this review, we explored the factors affecting the sustainability of community mental health assets. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using keywords based on three key terms: 'sustainability', 'mental health issues' and 'service provision'. Our search strategy was deployed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, ASSIA and IBSS) and relevant websites were also searched. The literature search was conducted in November and December 2020 and yielded 2486 results. After title and abstract screening, 544 articles were subjected to full-text review. A total of 16 studies were included in a narrative synthesis. Studies included a broad range of community interventions and 30 factors affecting sustainability were identified across three sustainability levels: micro (individual), meso (organisational) and macro (local/national/global). Factors were discussed as barriers or facilitators to sustainability. A key barrier across all sustainability levels was funding (cost to individual participants, lack of available funding for VCSEs, economic uncertainty) whilst a key facilitator was connectedness (social connections, partnering with other organisations, linking with national public health systems). Nearly all articles included no definition of sustainability and the majority of factors identified here were at the meso/organisational level. As funding was found to be such a prevalent barrier, more research into macro level factors (e.g. government policies) is required. Abstract
. Author URL
March A, Ashworth E, Mason C, Santos J, Mansfield R, Stapley E, Deighton J, Humphrey N, Tait N, Hayes D, et al
(2022). ‘Shall We Send a Panda?’ a Practical Guide to Engaging Schools in Research: Learning from Large-Scale Mental Health Intervention Trials. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
‘Shall We Send a Panda?’ a Practical Guide to Engaging Schools in Research: Learning from Large-Scale Mental Health Intervention Trials
The substantial time that children and young people spend in schools makes them important sites to trial and embed prevention and early intervention programmes. However, schools are complex settings, and it can be difficult to maintain school engagement in research trials; many projects experience high levels of attrition. This commentary presents learning from two large-scale, mixed-methods mental health intervention trials in English schools. The paper explores the barriers and challenges to engaging schools in promotion or early intervention research and offers detailed recommendations for other researchers. Abstract
Mansfield R, Humphrey N, Patalay P, Moore A, Stapley E
(2021). Adaptation of a school-based mental health literacy curriculum: from Canadian to English classrooms. Global Mental Health
Adaptation of a school-based mental health literacy curriculum: from Canadian to English classrooms
. School-based mental health literacy (MHL) interventions are increasingly trialled outside of the country in which they were developed. However, there is a lack of published studies that qualitatively explore their cultural adaptation. This study investigated the reasons for adaptations made and suggested to a Canadian MHL curriculum (The Guide) within the English school context.
. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 school staff responsible for the planning and/or implementation of the Guide across three schools in the South East of England, as part of the Education for Wellbeing (EfW) feasibility study. Transcripts were analysed using a hybrid, deductive-inductive thematic analysis.
. Adaptations made and suggested included dropping and emphasising content, and adapting language, examples and references. Most adaptations were proactive and related to the Guide's implementation methods, including developing more interactive and student-led approaches. Staff Capacity and Expertise, Timetabling, and Accessibility of Resources were identified as logistical reasons for adaptations. Philosophical reasons included Consistency of Messages, Student Characteristics, Reducing Stigma and Empowering Students, National and Local Context, and Appropriate Pedagogic Practices.
. Overall, recommendations were for immediately implementable lesson plans informed by teachers' knowledge about best pedagogic practices in England. Adequate training, attended by both senior leadership and those implementing, was also emphasised. While ensuring that the core components are clear, MHL interventions should be developed with a necessary level of flexibility to accommodate contextual characteristics. Future research should ensure that adaptations are captured through process and implementation evaluations conducted alongside efficacy trials.
Demkowicz O, Ashworth E, Mansfield R, Stapley E, Miles H, Hayes D, Burrell K, Moore A, Deighton J
(2020). Children and young people’s experiences of completing mental health and wellbeing measures for research: learning from two school-based pilot projects. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Children and young people’s experiences of completing mental health and wellbeing measures for research: learning from two school-based pilot projects
In recent years there has been growing interest in child and adolescent mental health and wellbeing, alongside increasing emphasis on schools as a crucial site for research and intervention. This has coincided with an increased use of self-report mental health and wellbeing measures in research with this population, including in school-based research projects. We set out to explore the way that children and young people perceive and experience completing mental health and wellbeing measures, with a specific focus on completion in a school context, in order to inform future measure and research design.
We conducted semi-structured interviews and focus groups with 133 participants aged 8–16 years following their completion of mental health and wellbeing measures as part of school-based research programmes, using thematic analysis to identify patterns of experience.
We identified six themes: Reflecting on emotions during completion; the importance of anonymity; understanding what is going to happen; ease of responding to items; level of demand; and interacting with the measure format.
Our findings offer greater insight into children and young people’s perceptions and experiences in reporting on their mental health and wellbeing. Such understanding can be used to support more ethical and robust data collection procedures in child and adolescent mental health research, both for data quality and ethical purposes. We offer several practical recommendations for researchers, including facilitating this in a school context.
Hayes D, Moore A, Stapley E, Humphrey N, Mansfield R, Santos J, Ashworth E, Patalay P, Bonin E-M, Moltrecht B, et al
(2019). Promoting mental health and wellbeing in schools: examining Mindfulness, Relaxation and Strategies for Safety and Wellbeing in English primary and secondary schools: study protocol for a multi-school, cluster randomised controlled trial (INSPIRE). Trials
Promoting mental health and wellbeing in schools: examining Mindfulness, Relaxation and Strategies for Safety and Wellbeing in English primary and secondary schools: study protocol for a multi-school, cluster randomised controlled trial (INSPIRE)
. There are increasing rates of internalising difficulties, particularly anxiety and depression, being reported in children and young people in England. School-based, universal prevention programmes are thought to be one way of helping tackle such difficulties. This protocol describes a four-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, investigating the effectiveness of three different interventions when compared to usual provision, in English primary and secondary pupils. The primary outcome for Mindfulness and Relaxation interventions is a measure of internalising difficulties, while Strategies for Safety and Wellbeing will be examined in relation to intended help-seeking. In addition to the effectiveness analysis, a process and implementation evaluation and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be undertaken.
. Methods and analysis
. Overall, 160 primary schools and 64 secondary schools will be recruited across England. This corresponds to 17,600 participants. Measures will be collected online at baseline, 3–6 months later, and 9–12 months after the commencement of the intervention. An economic evaluation will assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Moreover, a process and implementation evaluation (including a qualitative research component) will explore several aspects of implementation (fidelity, quality, dosage, reach, participant responsiveness, adaptations), social validity (acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility), and their moderating effects on the outcomes of interest, and perceived impact.
. This trial aims to address important questions about whether schools’ practices around the promotion of mental wellbeing and the prevention of mental health problems can: (1) be formalised into feasible and effective models of school-based support and (2) whether these practices and their effects can be sustained over time. Given the focus of these interventions on mirroring popular practice in schools and on prioritising approaches that present low-burden, high-acceptability to schools, if proved effective, and cost-effective, the findings will indicate models that are not only empirically tested but also offer high potential for widespread use and, therefore, potentially widespread benefits beyond the life of the trial.
. Trial registration
. ISRCTN16386254. Registered on 30 August 2018.
Hayes D, Moore A, Stapley E, Humphrey N, Mansfield R, Santos J, Ashworth E, Patalay P, Bonin E, Evans-Lacko S, et al
(2019). School-based intervention study examining approaches for well-being and mental health literacy of pupils in Year 9 in England: study protocol for a multischool, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial (AWARE). BMJ Open
School-based intervention study examining approaches for well-being and mental health literacy of pupils in Year 9 in England: study protocol for a multischool, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial (AWARE)
IntroductionThe prevalence of emotional difficulties in young people is increasing. This upward trend is largely accounted for by escalating symptoms of anxiety and depression. As part of a public health response, there is increasing emphasis on universal prevention programmes delivered in school settings. This protocol describes a three-arm, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial, investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two interventions, alongside a process and implementation evaluation, to improve mental health and well-being of Year 9 pupils in English secondary schools.MethodA three-arm, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial comparing two different interventions, the Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM) or the Mental Health and High School Curriculum Guide (The Guide), to Usual Provision. Overall, 144 secondary schools in England will be recruited, involving 8600 Year 9 pupils. The primary outcome for YAM is depressive symptoms, and for the Guide it is intended help-seeking. These will be measured at baseline, 3–6 months and 9–12 months after the intervention commenced. Secondary outcomes measured concurrently include changes to: positive well-being, behavioural difficulties, support from school staff, stigma-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, and mental health first aid. An economic evaluation will assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and a process and implementation evaluation (including a qualitative research component) will explore several aspects of implementation (fidelity, quality, dosage, reach, participant responsiveness, adaptations), social validity (acceptability, feasibility, utility), and their moderating effects on the outcomes of interest, and perceived impact.Ethics and disseminationThis trial has been approved by the University College London Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published in a report to the Department for Education, in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences.Trial registration numberISRCTN17631228.ProtocolV1 3 January 2019. Substantial changes to the protocol will be communicated to the trials manager to relevant parties (eg, ISRCTN). Abstract
Moore A, Stathi S (2019). The impact of feminist stereotypes and sexual identity on feminist self-identification and collective action. The Journal of Social Psychology, 160(3), 267-281.