Publications by year
Kennedy NA, Janjua M, Chanchlani N, Lin S, Bewshea C, Nice R, McDonald TJ, Auckland C, Harries LW, Davies M, et al
(2023). Vaccine escape, increased breakthrough and reinfection in infliximab-treated patients with IBD during the Omicron wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Gut
Vaccine escape, increased breakthrough and reinfection in infliximab-treated patients with IBD during the Omicron wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) drugs impair serological responses following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We sought to assess if a third dose of a messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccine substantially boosted anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and protective immunity in infliximab-treated patients with IBD. DESIGN: Third dose vaccine induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody responses, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, reinfection and persistent oropharyngeal carriage in patients with IBD treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab from the impaCt of bioLogic therApy on saRs-cov-2 Infection and immuniTY (CLARITY) IBD study. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-S RBD antibody concentrations increased in both groups following a third dose of an mRNA-based vaccine. However, concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, irrespective of whether their first two primary vaccine doses were ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (1856 U/mL (5.2) vs 10 728 U/mL (3.1), p Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Lin S, Chee D, Hamilton B, Nice R, Arkir Z, Bewshea C, Cipriano B, Derikx LAAP, Dunlop A, et al
(2022). Adalimumab and Infliximab Impair SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses: Results from a Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Study in 11 422 Biologic-Treated Patients. J Crohns Colitis
Adalimumab and Infliximab Impair SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses: Results from a Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Study in 11 422 Biologic-Treated Patients.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Infliximab attenuates serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether this is a class effect, or if anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] level influences serological responses, remains unknown. METHODS: Seroprevalence and the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibody responses were measured in surplus serum from 11 422 (53.3%  male; median age 36.8 years) patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, stored at six therapeutic drug monitoring laboratories between January 29 and September 30, 2020. Data were linked to nationally held SARS-CoV-2 PCR results to July 11, 2021. RESULTS: Rates of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar across treatment groups. Seroprevalence rates were lower in infliximab- and adalimumab- than vedolizumab-treated patients (infliximab: 3.0% [178/5893], adalimumab: 3.0% [152/5074], vedolizumab: 6.7% [25/375], pâ Abstract
0.003). The magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was similar in infliximab- vs adalimumab-treated patients (median 4.30 cut-off index [COI] [1.94-9.96] vs 5.02 [2.18-18.70], pâ
0.164), but higher in vedolizumab-treated patients (median 21.60 COI [4.39-68.10, pâ
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Lin S, Kennedy NA, Saifuddin A, Sandoval DM, Reynolds CJ, Seoane RC, Kottoor SH, Pieper FP, Lin K-M, Butler DK, et al
(2022). Antibody decay, T cell immunity and breakthrough infections following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with infliximab and vedolizumab. Nat Commun
Antibody decay, T cell immunity and breakthrough infections following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with infliximab and vedolizumab.
Anti tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs increase the risk of serious respiratory infection and impair protective immunity following pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune responses and breakthrough infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who are treated either with the anti-TNF antibody, infliximab, or with vedolizumab targeting a gut-specific anti-integrin that does not impair systemic immunity. Geometric mean [SD] anti-S RBD antibody concentrations are lower and half-lives shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following two doses of BNT162b2 (566.7 U/mL [6.2] vs 4555.3 U/mL [5.4], p Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Lin S, Auth MK, Lee CL, Robbins H, Looi S, Murugesan SV, Riley T, Preston C, Stephenson S, et al (2022). Implications for sequencing of biologic therapy and choice of second. <scp>antiâTNF</scp>. in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: results from the. <scp>IMmunogenicity</scp>. to Second. <scp>AntiâTNF</scp>. therapy (. <scp>IMSAT</scp>. ) therapeutic drug monitoring study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 56(8), 1250-1263.
Lin S, Lau LH, Chanchlani N, Kennedy NA, Ng SC
(2022). Recent advances in clinical practice: management of inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gut
Recent advances in clinical practice: management of inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised considerable concerns that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly those treated with immunosuppressive therapies, may have an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition, develop worse outcomes following COVID-19, and have suboptimal vaccine response compared with the general population. In this review, we summarise data on the risk of COVID-19 and associated outcomes, and latest guidance on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD. Emerging evidence suggests that commonly used medications for IBD, such as corticosteroids but not biologicals, were associated with adverse outcomes to COVID-19. There has been no increased risk of de novo, or delayed, IBD diagnoses, however, an overall decrease in endoscopy procedures has led to a rise in the number of missed endoscopic-detected cancers during the pandemic. The impact of IBD medication on vaccine response has been a research priority recently. Data suggest that patients with IBD treated with antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) medications had attenuated humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and more rapid antibody decay, compared with non-anti-TNF-treated patients. Reassuringly, rates of breakthrough infections and hospitalisations in all patients who received vaccines, irrespective of IBD treatment, remained low. International guidelines recommend that all patients with IBD treated with immunosuppressive therapies should receive, at any point during their treatment cycle, three primary doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with a further booster dose as soon as possible. Future research should focus on our understanding of the rate of antibody decay in biological-treated patients, which patients require additional doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, the long-term risks of COVID-19 on IBD disease course and activity, and the potential risk of long COVID-19 in patients with IBD. Abstract
Lin S, Chanchlani N, Carbery I, Janjua M, Nice R, McDonald TJ, Bewshea C, Kennedy NA, Ahmad T, Selinger CP, et al (2022). Understanding. <scp>antiâTNF</scp>. treatment failure: does serum triiodothyronineâtoâthyroxine (. <scp>T3</scp>. /. <scp>T4</scp>. ) ratio predict therapeutic outcome to. <scp>antiâTNF</scp>. therapies in biologicânaïve patients with active luminal Crohn's disease?. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 56(5), 783-793.
Chanchlani N, Rack D, Hossain U, Leigh A
(2021). 14-month old boy with abrupt-onset petechiae and bruising. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed
(1), 35-37. Author URL
Kennedy NA, Goodhand JR, Bewshea C, Nice R, Chee D, Lin S, Chanchlani N, Butterworth J, Cooney R, Croft NM, et al
(2021). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in patients with IBD treated with infliximab. Gut
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in patients with IBD treated with infliximab
ObjectiveAntitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections.DesignAntibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020.ResultsRates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2–5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2–76.1), p<0.0001).ConclusionsInfliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy.Trial registration numberISRCTN45176516. Abstract
Lin S, Kennedy NA, Saifuddin A, Sandoval DM, Reynolds CJ, Seoane RC, Kottoor SH, Pieper FP, Lin K-M, Butler DK, et al (2021). Antibody decay, T cell immunity and breakthrough infections following two SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in infliximab- and vedolizumab-treated patients.
Lin S, Kennedy NA, Saifuddin A, Sandoval DM, Reynolds C, Seoane RC, Kottoor S, Pieper F, Lin K-M, Butler DK, et al (2021). Covid-19 vaccine-induced antibodies are attenuated and decay rapidly in infliximab treated patients.
Chanchlani N, Hodes D
(2021). Fifteen-minute consultation: Vulval soreness in the prepubertal girl. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed
(6), 333-340. Author URL
Kennedy NA, Lin S, Goodhand JR, Chanchlani N, Hamilton B, Bewshea C, Nice R, Chee D, Cummings JF, Fraser A, et al
(2021). Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD. Gut
Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with IBD.
OBJECTIVE: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. DESIGN: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Parke SC, Hart JW
(2021). Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 5-month-old baby. CMAJ
(1). Author URL
Nice R, Chanchlani N, Green H, Bewshea C, Ahmad T, Goodhand JR, McDonald TJ, Perry MH, Kennedy NA
(2021). Validating the positivity thresholds of drug-tolerant anti-infliximab and anti-adalimumab antibody assays. Aliment Pharmacol Ther
Validating the positivity thresholds of drug-tolerant anti-infliximab and anti-adalimumab antibody assays.
BACKGROUND: When used proactively, drug-tolerant anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibody assays provide early opportunity to suppress immunogenicity. AIM: to validate positivity thresholds of IDKmonitor drug-tolerant anti-infliximab and -adalimumab antibody assays. METHODS: We applied positivity thresholds, defined by testing sera from 498 anti-TNF naive healthy adults, from the Exeter Ten Thousand study to data from our therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service and Personalised Anti-TNF Therapy in Crohn's disease (PANTS) cohort to explore associations with drug level and treatment outcomes. RESULTS: the 80% one-sided lower confidence interval of the 99th centile concentration for anti-infliximab and -adalimumab antibodies were lower than the manufacturers threshold of 10 arbitrary units (AU)/mL; 9 and 6 AU/mL, respectively. Using these new thresholds in the TDM cohort, more adalimumab- than infliximab- (11.2% [814/7272] vs 3.1% [390/12 683] P Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Buchanan F, Gill PJ
(2020). Addressing the indirect effects of COVID-19 on the health of children and young people. CMAJ
(32), E921-E927. Author URL
Chanchlani N, Jarvis P, Hart JW, McMillan CH, Moudiotis CR
(2020). Adolescent with abdominal pain poorly responsive to analgesia. Archives of disease in childhood - Education & practice edition
Adolescent with abdominal pain poorly responsive to analgesia
Case presentationA 14-year-old boy, with autism spectrum disorder, presented with a 1-day history of colicky abdominal pain, non-bilious vomiting, anorexia and loose normal-coloured stool. Two days previously, he had a poorly reheated takeaway chicken.On examination, body mass index (BMI) was >99th centile. He had inconsistent epigastric, periumbilical and umbilical tenderness, and guarding, with normal bowel sounds. Observations were within normal limits, but his pain was poorly responsive to paracetamol, ibuprofen, hyoscine butylbromide, codeine and morphine.Investigations are in table 1. On day 3, his temperature increased to 38.5° and a CT scan was performed, which showed concerning features (figure 1).Table 1Serology and further investigations throughout admissionDay 1Day 2Day 3Day 4Serology White cell count (3.8–10.6×109/L)7.514.615.713.6 Neutrophils (1.8–8.0×109/L)5.312.312.85.3 C reactive protein (<5 mg/L)12010398 Bilirubin (0–21 μmol/L)812Further investigations Urine dipstickNegative UltrasoundSmall volume of free fluid, normal gallbladder, pancreas and appendix not visualisedFigure 1CT scan of the abdomen (A) and pelvis (B).QuestionsWhat is the diagnosis?Appendicitis.Pancreatitis.Cholecystitis.Gastroenteritis.Which serology would have been most helpful at presentation?Renal function.Coagulation.Amylase and lipase.Gamma glutamyltransferase.What are the acute treatment principles?What is the the most common cause?Idiopathic.Gallstones.Medications.Genetic.Answers can be found on page 2. Abstract
Lin S, Green HD, Hendy P, Heerasing NM, Chanchlani N, Hamilton B, Walker GJ, Heap GA, Hobart J, Martin RJ, et al
(2020). Clinical Features and Genetic Risk of Demyelination Following Anti-TNF Treatment. J Crohns Colitis
Clinical Features and Genetic Risk of Demyelination Following Anti-TNF Treatment.
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF exposure has been linked to demyelination events. We sought to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF treatment and to test whether affected patients were genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis [MS]. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF exposure. We compared genetic risk scores [GRS], calculated using carriage of 43 susceptibility loci for MS, in 48 cases with 1219 patients exposed to anti-TNF who did not develop demyelination. RESULTS: Overall, 39 [74%] cases were female. The median age [range] of patients at time of demyelination was 41.5 years [20.7-63.2]. The median duration of anti-TNF treatment was 21.3 months [0.5-99.4] and 19 [36%] patients were receiving concomitant immunomodulators. Most patients had central demyelination affecting the brain, spinal cord, or both. Complete recovery was reported in 12 [23%] patients after a median time of 6.8 months [0.1-28.7]. After 33.0 months of follow-up, partial recovery was observed in 29 [55%] patients, relapsing and remitting episodes in nine [17%], progressive symptoms in three [6%]: two [4%] patients were diagnosed with MS. There was no significant difference between MS GRS scores in cases (mean -3.5 × 10-4, standard deviation [SD] 0.0039) and controls [mean -1.1 × 10-3, SD 0.0042] [p = 0.23]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experienced demyelination events following anti-TNF exposure were more likely female, less frequently treated with an immunomodulator, and had a similar genetic risk to anti-TNF exposed controls who did not experience demyelination events. Large prospective studies with pre-treatment neuroimaging are required to identify genetic susceptibility loci. Abstract
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Levine A, Chanchlani N, Hussey S, Ziv-Baran T, Escher JC, Amil Dias J, Veres G, Koletzko S, Turner D, Kolho K-L, et al
(2020). Complicated Disease and Response to Initial Therapy Predicts Early Surgery in Paediatric Crohn's Disease: Results from the Porto Group GROWTH Study. J Crohns Colitis
Complicated Disease and Response to Initial Therapy Predicts Early Surgery in Paediatric Crohn's Disease: Results from the Porto Group GROWTH Study.
INTRODUCTION: the ability to predict risk for poor outcomes in Crohn's disease [CD] would enable early treatment intensification. We aimed to identify children with CD with complications at baseline and throughout the study period who are at risk for surgery 2 years from diagnosis. METHODS: Newly diagnosed children with CD were enrolled into a prospective, multicentre inception cohort. Disease characteristics and serological markers were obtained at baseline and week 12 thereafter. Outcome data including disease activity, therapies, complications and need for surgery were collected until the end of 104 weeks. A chi-square automatic interaction detection [CHAID] algorithm was used to develop a prediction model for early surgery. RESULTS: of 285 children enrolled, 31 [10.9%] required surgery within 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified stricturing disease at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 5.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-13.67 [p = 0.001]), and Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index [PCDAI] >10 at week 12 (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10 [p = 0.005]) as key predictors for early surgery. CHAID demonstrated that absence of strictures at diagnosis [7.6%], corticosteroid-free remission at week 12 [4.1%] and early immunomodulator therapy [0.8%] were associated with the lowest risk of surgery, while stricturing disease at diagnosis [27.1%, p < 0.001] or elevated PCDAI at week 12 [16.7%, p = 0.014] had an increased risk of surgery at follow-up. Anti-OmpC status further stratified high-risk patients. DISCUSSION: a risk algorithm using clinical and serological variables at diagnosis and week 12 can categorize patients into high- and low-risk groups from diagnosis. Abstract
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Sazonovs A, Kennedy NA, Moutsianas L, Heap GA, Rice DL, Reppell M, Bewshea CM, Chanchlani N, Walker GJ, Perry MH, et al
(2020). HLA-DQA1*05 Carriage Associated with Development of Anti-Drug Antibodies to Infliximab and Adalimumab in Patients with Crohn's Disease. Gastroenterology
HLA-DQA1*05 Carriage Associated with Development of Anti-Drug Antibodies to Infliximab and Adalimumab in Patients with Crohn's Disease.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies are the most widely used biologic drugs for treating immune-mediated diseases, but repeated administration can induce the formation of anti-drug antibodies. The ability to identify patients at increased risk for development of anti-drug antibodies would facilitate selection of therapy and use of preventative strategies. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study to identify variants associated with time to development of anti-drug antibodies in a discovery cohort of 1240 biologic-naïve patients with Crohn's disease starting infliximab or adalimumab therapy. Immunogenicity was defined as an anti-drug antibody titer ≥10 AU/mL using a drug-tolerant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Significant association signals were confirmed in a replication cohort of 178 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: the HLA-DQA1*05 allele, carried by approximately 40% of Europeans, significantly increased the rate of immunogenicity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.25; P = 5.88 × 10-13). The highest rates of immunogenicity, 92% at 1 year, were observed in patients treated with infliximab monotherapy who carried HLA-DQA1*05; conversely the lowest rates of immunogenicity, 10% at 1 year, were observed in patients treated with adalimumab combination therapy who did not carry HLA-DQA1*05. We confirmed this finding in the replication cohort (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.35-2.98; P = 6.60 × 10-4). This association was consistent for patients treated with adalimumab (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.70) or infliximab (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.57-2.33), and for patients treated with anti-TNF therapy alone (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.37-2.22) or in combination with an immunomodulator (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.57-2.58). CONCLUSIONS: in an observational study, we found a genome-wide significant association between HLA-DQA1*05 and the development of antibodies against anti-TNF agents. A randomized controlled biomarker trial is required to determine whether pretreatment testing for HLA-DQA1*05 improves patient outcomes by helping physicians select anti-TNF and combination therapies. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03088449. Abstract
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Hamilton B, Green H, Heerasing N, Hendy P, Moore L, Chanchlani N, Walker G, Bewshea C, Kennedy NA, Ahmad T, et al
(2020). Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Devon, UK. Frontline Gastroenterology
Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Devon, UK
Background and aimsWe sought to define temporal changes in prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in East Devon, UK, in order to facilitate service planning over the next 5 years.MethodsMultiple primary and secondary care databases were used to identify and verify cases. Point prevalence and incidence of IBD were reported in April 2017 and from 2008 to 2016, respectively. Future prevalence and healthcare activity requirements were estimated by linear regression.ResultsPrevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn’s disease (CD) and inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) were 479.72, 265.94 and 35.34 per 100 000 persons, respectively. In 2016, the incidence rates of UC, CD and IBDU were 15.4, 10.7 and 1.4 per 100 000 persons per year, respectively. There were no significant changes in the incidence of CD (p=0.49, R=0.26) or UC (p=0.80, R=0.10). IBD prevalence has increased by 39.9% (95% CI 28.2 to 53.7) in the last 10 years without differences in the rate of change between UC and CD. Overall, 27% of patients were managed in primary care, a quarter of whom were eligible but not receiving endoscopic surveillance. Outpatient clinics, MRI and biologic use, but not helpline calls, admissions, or surgeries increased over and above the change in IBD prevalence.ConclusionsWe report one of the highest prevalence and incidence rates of IBD from Northern Europe. Overall, IBD incidence is static, but prevalence is increasing. We estimate that 1% of our population will live with IBD between 2025 and 2030. Abstract
Chanchlani N, Walters TD, Russell RK (2020). Managing nonspecific abdominal pain in children and young people. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(48), E1639-E1640.
Walker GJ, Chanchlani N, Thomas A, Lin S, Moore L, Heerasing NM, Hendy P, Abdelrahim M, Mole S, Perry MH, et al
(2020). Primary care faecal calprotectin testing in children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: a diagnostic accuracy study. Arch Dis Child
Primary care faecal calprotectin testing in children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease: a diagnostic accuracy study.
OBJECTIVE: to determine the diagnostic accuracy of calprotectin to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children in whom general practitioners (GPs) suspected IBD. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study of a new calprotectin-based primary care referral pathway. SETTING: 48 GP practices and gastroenterology secondary care services at the Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust in the South-West of England, UK. PATIENTS: 195 children aged between 4 and 18 years referred on the pathway between January 2014 and August 2017 for investigation of gastrointestinal symptoms were included. INTERVENTIONS: Primary-care-driven faecal calprotectin testing. Primary and secondary care records over 12 months from the point of calprotectin testing were used as the reference standard. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic accuracy of calprotectin testing to detect IBD. RESULTS: 7% (13/195) tested patients were diagnosed with IBD. Using our prespecified cut-off of 100 µg/g, calprotectin had a diagnostic accuracy of 91% (95% CI 86% to 95%) with a sensitivity for distinguishing IBD from non-IBD of 100% (95% CI 75% to 100%), a specificity of 91% (95% CI 85% to 94%), a positive predictive value of 43% (95% CI 25% to 63%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI 98% to 100%). Calprotectin testing had no effect on the time to diagnosis, but a negative test contributed to saved referrals and was associated with fewer diagnostic tests in secondary care. CONCLUSIONS: Calprotectin testing of children with suspected IBD in primary care accurately distinguishes IBD from a functional gut disorder, reduces secondary care referrals and associated diagnostic healthcare utilisation. Abstract
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Walker GJ, Lin S, Chanchlani N, Thomas A, Hendy P, Heerasing N, Moore L, Green HD, Chee D, Bewshea C, et al (2020). Quality improvement project identifies factors associated with delay in IBD diagnosis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 52(3), 471-480.
Honap S, Chee D, Chapman TP, Patel M, Kent AJ, Ray S, Sharma E, Kennedy J, Cripps S, Walsh A, et al
(2020). Real-world Effectiveness of Tofacitinib for Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis: a Multicentre UK Experience. J Crohns Colitis
Real-world Effectiveness of Tofacitinib for Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis: a Multicentre UK Experience.
BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is a partially selective Janus kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of refractory moderate to severe ulcerative colitis [UC]. We sought to define the effectiveness and adverse effects of tofacitinib in a real-world cohort. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 134 patients with UC [64% male; median age 37 years [range 16-81]; 83% of patients had previously received at least one biologic] treated with tofacitinib from October 2018 to October 2019 in four UK centres. Disease activity was assessed using the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index [SCCAI] or partial Mayo score [PMS], depending on study site. Response and remission were defined as a reduction in SCCAI or PMS ofâ Abstract
≤2 or a PMSâ
≤1, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 74% (88/119; 95 confidence interval [CI] 65-81%] patients responded to tofacitinib at Week 8 and steroid-free remission was observed in 44% [47/108; 95% CI 3453%] patients at Week 26. Primary non-response was independently associated with younger age [pâ
0.014] and higher C-reactive protein [CRP] levels at baseline [pâ
0.004]. Only 23% [3/13] of patients who continued tofacitinib in the setting of primary non-response were in steroid-free remission at Week 26. Prior biologic exposure did not influence response or remission rates. Dose escalation, however, recaptured response in approximately half of patients who had lost response. Dyslipidaemia was observed in 20% [27/134; 95% CI 1428%] of patients, but adverse events necessitating drug withdrawal were uncommon and no venous thromboembolic events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: in this multicentre real-world cohort, tofacitinib was well tolerated and clinically effective in a treatment-refractory UC population.
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Gordon C, Chee D, Hamilton B, Chanchlani N, Heerasing NM, Hendy P, Lin S, Wesley E, Daniels I, Goodhand JR, et al
(2020). Root cause analysis to identify missed opportunities for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. JOURNAL OF CROHNS & COLITIS
, S273-S275. Author URL
Chanchlani N, Reading NG
(2019). A middle aged man with back pain and heavy legs. BMJ
, 366 Author URL
Christie D, Chanchlani N, Salehian S (2019). Fever and tachypnoea in a child. BMJ (Online), 365
Chanchlani N, Russell RK
(2019). Inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents. CMAJ
(6). Author URL
Bewshea CM, Ahmad T, Kennedy N, Goodhand J, McDonald T, Green H (2019). Predictors of anti-TNF treatment failure in anti-TNF-naive patients with active luminal Crohn's disease: a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kapeller K, Chanchlani N
(2019). Tips for the childhood immunisation OSCE. BMJ
, 364 Author URL
Chanchlani N, Mortier K, Williams LJ, Muhammed R, Auth MKH, Cosgrove M, Fagbemi A, Fell J, Chong S, Zamvar V, et al
(2018). Use of Infliximab Biosimilar Versus Originator in a Pediatric United Kingdom Inflammatory Bowel Disease Induction Cohort. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr
Use of Infliximab Biosimilar Versus Originator in a Pediatric United Kingdom Inflammatory Bowel Disease Induction Cohort.
OBJECTIVES: the aim of the study was to summarize short-term effectiveness, safety, and cost of using infliximab biosimilar (IFX-B) drugs, (Inflectra [Hospira] and Remsima [NAAP]) compared to originator infliximab (IFX-O) (Remicade [MSD]) in biologic naive pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Prospective audit of patients starting anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Disease severity, response to treatment, and remission rate was measured by Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) and/or Physician Global Assessment. RESULTS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, 278 patients (175 IFX-O, 82 IFX-B, and 21 Adalimumab) were started on anti-TNF therapy. This was compared with collected data on 398 patients started on IFX-O from 2011 to 2015. At initiation, median PCDAI was 36 (20,48) (nâ=â42) in the IFX-O group and 28 (20,40) (nâ=â29) in the IFX-B group, (Pâ=â0.08). Immunosuppression rates were similar: 150/175 (86%) for IFX-O and 65/82 (79%) for IFX-B (Pâ>â0.05). Post induction, median PCDAI score was 5 (0,11) (nâ=â19) and 0 (0,8) (nâ=â15) in the IFX-O and IFX-B groups, respectively (Pâ=â0.35). There was no difference in response to treatment using Physician Global Assessment 85% (nâ=â28) in IFX-O group and 86% (nâ=â19) in IFX-B group (Pâ>â0.05). Adverse events at initiation and post induction were not different between both groups (Pâ>â0.05). Using conservative calculations, £875,000 would have been saved for a 1-year period with universal adoption of biosimilars in patients who were instead treated with IFX-O. CONCLUSIONS: IFX-B is likely as effective as IFX-O in treating IBD in comparable pediatric populations. Sites should adopt infliximab biosimilar for new starts due to cost reduction with no difference in other parameters. Abstract
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Dhanjal S, Green M, Pearce J, Chanchlani N
(2017). Better information sharing and reinforcement of facts needed during transition of young people with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav
, 283-284. Author URL
Chanchlani N, Reading NG, Goodhand JR (2017). Haemosuccus pancreaticus. BMJ (Online), 356
Chanchlani N, Davis F, Devarajan K
(2017). Ongoing vomiting in an infant. BMJ
, 357 Author URL
Wong ML, Chanchlani N, Croft G (2017). Out of place: recognising, understanding and responding to the health needs of looked after refugee and trafficked children and young people – conference report. Adoption and Fostering, 41(1), 91-95.
Wolfe I, Sigfrid L, Chanchlani N, Lenton S
(2016). Child Health Systems in the United Kingdom (England). J Pediatr
Child Health Systems in the United Kingdom (England).
Child health in the United Kingdom has improved markedly over recent decades but has failed to match health gains and reductions in mortality achieved by other European countries. Child poverty and inequalities are rising in the United Kingdom. The National Health Service (NHS) is a universally accessible health service, funded by taxation and is free at the point of use. The NHS is undergoing substantial reform, aiming to improve care quality and experience, meet rising demands, and contain costs. The NHS is struggling to balance access with expertise for urgent and unscheduled care. There is increasing use of urgent and emergency care, and there are unexplained variations in outcomes. Quality of care for children and young people with chronic and long-term conditions, including transition services, is variable and sometimes poor. Many determinants of noncommunicable conditions are worsening. Key achievements include a universal service free at the point of use, providing generally accessible, and equitable care. Key challenges include increasing fragmentation of services, insufficient emphasis on preventive care, achieving an effective balance between access and expertise of care for children, and improving child health and well-being outcomes despite generally high quality inputs and high levels of spending. Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Harewood C, Hossain U, Leigh A
(2015). Better Transition Readiness for Adolescents Begins with Effective Communication. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol
(7), 574-575. Author URL
Chanchlani N, McGee M, McDonagh JE
(2015). Informational continuity is integral for successful transition of adolescents to adult care. J Rheumatol
(5), 901-902. Author URL
Sandoo A, Chanchlani N, Hodson J, Smith JP, Douglas KM, Kitas GD
(2014). The relationship between cardiovascular disease risk prediction scores and vascular function and morphology in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol
The relationship between cardiovascular disease risk prediction scores and vascular function and morphology in rheumatoid arthritis.
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from impairments in vascular function and morphology. CVD risk prediction scores can identify patients at high risk of CVD, but little is known about whether they relate with assessments of vascular function and morphology which provide early indication of subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship of several CVD risk prediction scores with assessments of vascular function and morphology in patients with RA. METHODS: Framingham risk score, Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation for total cholesterol and ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein, as well as Reynolds Risk Score, and QRISK2 were calculated in 201 RA patients (155 females, median (25th to 75th percentile) age: 61 (53-67)) who were examined at baseline (2006). The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) multiplication factor was also applied to the algorithms. At a 6-year follow-up (2012) visit the patients underwent assessments of microvascular and macrovascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, along with assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. RESULTS: all five CVD risk prediction scores measured at baseline were significantly correlated with vascular function and morphology at follow-up. Application of the EULAR multiplication factor did not change any of the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Five commonly used CVD risk prediction scores associate with assessments of vascular function and morphology over a 6-year follow-up period suggesting that these CVD risk prediction scores may also reflect subclinical atherosclerotic changes. Abstract
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Sandoo A, Chanchlani N, Hodson J, Smith JP, Douglas KM, Kitas GD
(2013). Classical cardiovascular disease risk factors associate with vascular function and morphology in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-year prospective study. Arthritis Res Ther
Classical cardiovascular disease risk factors associate with vascular function and morphology in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-year prospective study.
INTRODUCTION: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). An early manifestation of CVD is endothelial dysfunction which can lead to functional and morphological vascular abnormalities. Classical CVD risk factors and inflammation are both implicated in causing endothelial dysfunction in RA. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of baseline inflammation, cumulative inflammation, and classical CVD risk factors on the vasculature following a six-year follow-up period. METHODS: a total of 201 RA patients (155 females, median age (25th to 75th percentile): 61 years (53 to 67)) were examined at baseline (2006) for presence of classical CVD risk factors and determination of inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). At follow-up (2012) patients underwent assessments of microvascular and macrovascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, along with assessment of carotid atherosclerosis. The CRP and ESR were recorded from the baseline study visit to the follow-up visit for each patient to calculate cumulative inflammatory burden. RESULTS: Classical CVD risk factors, but not RA disease-related inflammation, predicted microvascular endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent function, macrovascular endothelium-independent function and carotid atherosclerosis. These findings were similar in a sub-group of patients free from CVD, and not receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors or biologics. Cumulative inflammation was not associated with microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function, but a weak association was apparent between area under the curve for CRP and carotid atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Classical CVD risk factors may be better long-term predictors of vascular function and morphology than systemic disease-related inflammation in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to confirm if assessments of vascular function and morphology are predictive of long-term CV outcomes in RA. Abstract
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Chanchlani N, Neale E, Rylance PB
(2012). A South African man with renal failure and pulmonary shadowing. BMJ
, 344 Author URL
Chanchlani N, Godlee F
(2012). Educating tomorrow's doctors. BMJ
, 344 Author URL