Publications by year
Harlow CE, Patel VV, Waterworth DM, Wood AR, Beaumont RN, Ruth KS, Tyrrell J, Oguro-Ando A, Chu AY, Frayling TM, et al
(2023). Genetically proxied therapeutic prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition and cardiovascular risk. Hum Mol Genet
Genetically proxied therapeutic prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition and cardiovascular risk.
Prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors are in clinical development for anaemia in chronic kidney disease. Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding safety of long-term therapeutic haemoglobin (Hgb) rises through PHD inhibition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Genetic variation in genes encoding PHDs can be used as partial proxies to investigate the potential effects of long-term Hgb rises. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the effect of long-term Hgb level rises through genetically proxied PHD inhibition on coronary artery disease (CAD: 60 801 cases; 123 504 controls), myocardial infarction (MI: 42 561 cases; 123 504 controls) or stroke (40 585 cases; 406 111 controls). To further characterize long-term effects of Hgb level rises, we performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) in up to 451 099 UK Biobank individuals. Genetically proxied therapeutic PHD inhibition, equivalent to a 1.00 g/dl increase in Hgb levels, was not associated (at P Abstract
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Martin E-R, Gandawijaya J, Oguro-Ando A (2022). A novel method for generating glutamatergic SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells utilizing B-27 supplement. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13
Washer SJ, Flynn R, Oguro‐Ando A, Hannon E, Burrage J, Jeffries A, Mill J, Dempster EL (2022). Functional characterization of the schizophrenia associated gene. <scp>. <i>AS3MT</i>. </scp>. identifies a role in neuronal development. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 189(5), 151-162.
Harlow CE, Gandawijaya J, Bamford RA, Martin E-R, Wood AR, van der Most PJ, Tanaka T, Leonard HL, Etheridge AS, Innocenti F, et al
(2022). Identification and single-base gene-editing functional validation of a cis-EPO variant as a genetic predictor for EPO-increasing therapies. Am J Hum Genet
Identification and single-base gene-editing functional validation of a cis-EPO variant as a genetic predictor for EPO-increasing therapies.
Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are currently under clinical development for treating anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it is important to monitor their cardiovascular safety. Genetic variants can be used as predictors to help inform the potential risk of adverse effects associated with drug treatments. We therefore aimed to use human genetics to help assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with therapeutically altered EPO levels to help inform clinical trials studying the safety of HIF-PHIs. By performing a genome-wide association meta-analysis of EPO (n = 6,127), we identified a cis-EPO variant (rs1617640) lying in the EPO promoter region. We validated this variant as most likely causal in controlling EPO levels by using genetic and functional approaches, including single-base gene editing. Using this variant as a partial predictor for therapeutic modulation of EPO and large genome-wide association data in Mendelian randomization tests, we found no evidence (at p Abstract
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Eve M, Gandawijaya J, Yang L, Oguro-Ando A
(2022). Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecules May Mediate Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Psychiatry
Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecules May Mediate Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition characterized by restrictive and repetitive behaviors, alongside deficits in social interaction and communication. The etiology of ASD is largely unknown but is strongly linked to genetic variants in neuronal cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), cell-surface proteins that have important roles in neurodevelopment. A combination of environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to ASD pathogenesis. Inflammation in ASD has been identified as one of these factors, demonstrated through the presence of proinflammatory cytokines, maternal immune activation, and activation of glial cells in ASD brains. Glial cells are the main source of cytokines within the brain and, therefore, their activity is vital in mediating inflammation in the central nervous system. However, it is unclear whether the aforementioned neuronal CAMs are involved in modulating neuroimmune signaling or glial behavior. This review aims to address the largely unexplored role that neuronal CAMs may play in mediating inflammatory cascades that underpin neuroinflammation in ASD, primarily focusing on the Notch, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. We will also evaluate the available evidence on how neuronal CAMs may influence glial activity associated with inflammation. This is important when considering the impact of environmental factors and inflammatory responses on ASD development. In particular, neural CAM1 (NCAM1) can regulate NF-κB transcription in neurons, directly altering proinflammatory signaling. Additionally, NCAM1 and contactin-1 appear to mediate astrocyte and oligodendrocyte precursor proliferation which can alter the neuroimmune response. Importantly, although this review highlights the limited information available, there is evidence of a neuronal CAM regulatory role in inflammatory signaling. This warrants further investigation into the role other neuronal CAM family members may have in mediating inflammatory cascades and would advance our understanding of how neuroinflammation can contribute to ASD pathology. Abstract
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Josiah SS, Meor Azlan NF, Oguro-Ando A, Zhang J (2022). Study of the Functions and Activities of Neuronal K-Cl Co-Transporter KCC2 Using Western Blotting. Journal of Visualized Experiments(190).
(2022). The role of common genetic variants for predicting the modulation of cardiovascular outcomes.
The role of common genetic variants for predicting the modulation of cardiovascular outcomes
Attrition is a major issue in the drug development process with 79% of clinical failures due to safety and efficacy concerns. Genetic research can provide supporting evidence of a clear causal relationship between the drug target and disease or reveal unintended effects through associations with non-relevant phenotypes informing on potential drug safety. However, due to the underlying genetic architecture, it is often unclear which gene or variant in the loci identified through genetic analyses is driving the association. Due to recent advancements in CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing, it is now possible to relatively easily perform whole gene knock-out studies and single base-edits to validate genetic findings of the most likely causal variant and gene. Utilising a combination of genetic approaches and functional studies can provide supporting evidence of the therapeutic profile and potential effects of drug therapies and improve our overall understanding of biological pathways and disease mechanisms. Abstract
The primary aim of this thesis is to provide genetic data to support the ongoing clinical development of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) for treating anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify genetic variants lying within or nearby genes encoding the drug target (prolyl hydroxylase [PHD] enzymes). These identified variants were used in Mendelian Randomisation analysis and phenome-wide association studies to genetically mirror the pharmaceutical effects of PHIs and investigate cardiovascular safety. Functional validation studies were employed to functionally validate a genetic variant for use as a proxy and to obtain a better understanding of the downstream causal pathways and biological mechanisms of the drug target.
In summary, this thesis demonstrates how a combination of genetic analyses and functional validation studies is a powerful approach to validate GWAS results and further characterise therapeutic effects. This PhD project identified relevant genetic markers to genetically proxy therapeutic modulation of biomarker levels through PHD inhibition and could potentially inform further research using patient-level clinical data from Phase III trials.
Oguro-Ando A, Bamford RA, Sital W, Sprengers JJ, Zuko A, Matser JM, Oppelaar H, Sarabdjitsingh A, Joëls M, Burbach JPH, et al
(2021). Cntn4, a risk gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and behavior. Transl Psychiatry
Cntn4, a risk gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity and behavior.
Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), anorexia nervosa (AN), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are heterogeneous brain disorders with unknown etiology. Genome wide studies have revealed a wide variety of risk genes for these disorders, indicating a biological link between genetic signaling pathways and brain pathology. A unique risk gene is Contactin 4 (Cntn4), an Ig cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) gene, which has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD, AN, AD, and SZ. Here, we investigated the Cntn4 gene knockout (KO) mouse model to determine whether memory dysfunction and altered brain plasticity, common neuropsychiatric symptoms, are affected by Cntn4 genetic disruption. For that purpose, we tested if Cntn4 genetic disruption affects CA1 synaptic transmission and the ability to induce LTP in hippocampal slices. Stimulation in CA1 striatum radiatum significantly decreased synaptic potentiation in slices of Cntn4 KO mice. Neuroanatomical analyses showed abnormal dendritic arborization and spines of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Short- and long-term recognition memory, spatial memory, and fear conditioning responses were also assessed. These behavioral studies showed increased contextual fear conditioning in heterozygous and homozygous KO mice, quantified by a gene-dose dependent increase in freezing response. In comparison to wild-type mice, Cntn4-deficient animals froze significantly longer and groomed more, indicative of increased stress responsiveness under these test conditions. Our electrophysiological, neuro-anatomical, and behavioral results in Cntn4 KO mice suggest that Cntn4 has important functions related to fear memory possibly in association with the neuronal morphological and synaptic plasticity changes in hippocampus CA1 neurons. Abstract
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Gandawijaya J, Bamford RA, Burbach JPH, Oguro-Ando A
(2020). Cell Adhesion Molecules Involved in Neurodevelopmental Pathways Implicated in 3p-Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Front Cell Neurosci
Cell Adhesion Molecules Involved in Neurodevelopmental Pathways Implicated in 3p-Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction, language delay and repetitive or restrictive behaviors. With increasing prevalence, ASD is currently estimated to affect 0.5-2.0% of the global population. However, its etiology remains unclear due to high genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Copy number variations (CNVs) are implicated in several forms of syndromic ASD and have been demonstrated to contribute toward ASD development by altering gene dosage and expression. Increasing evidence points toward the p-arm of chromosome 3 (chromosome 3p) as an ASD risk locus. Deletions occurring at chromosome 3p result in 3p-deletion syndrome (Del3p), a rare genetic disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms and often, ASD or ASD-associated behaviors. Therefore, we hypothesize that overlapping molecular mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of Del3p and ASD. To investigate which genes encoded in chromosome 3p could contribute toward Del3p and ASD, we performed a comprehensive literature review and collated reports investigating the phenotypes of individuals with chromosome 3p CNVs. We observe that high frequencies of CNVs occur in the 3p26.3 region, the terminal cytoband of chromosome 3p. This suggests that CNVs disrupting genes encoded within the 3p26.3 region are likely to contribute toward the neurodevelopmental phenotypes observed in individuals affected by Del3p. The 3p26.3 region contains three consecutive genes encoding closely related neuronal immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs): Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1), Contactin-6 (CNTN6), and Contactin-4 (CNTN4). CNVs disrupting these neuronal IgCAMs may contribute toward ASD phenotypes as they have been associated with key roles in neurodevelopment. CHL1, CNTN6, and CNTN4 have been observed to promote neurogenesis and neuronal survival, and regulate neuritogenesis and synaptic function. Furthermore, there is evidence that these neuronal IgCAMs possess overlapping interactomes and participate in common signaling pathways regulating axon guidance. Notably, mouse models deficient for these neuronal IgCAMs do not display strong deficits in axonal migration or behavioral phenotypes, which is in contrast to the pronounced defects in neuritogenesis and axon guidance observed in vitro. This suggests that when CHL1, CNTN6, or CNTN4 function is disrupted by CNVs, other neuronal IgCAMs may suppress behavioral phenotypes by compensating for the loss of function. Abstract
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Bamford RA, Widagdo J, Takamura N, Eve M, Anggono V, Oguro-Ando A (2020). The Interaction Between Contactin and Amyloid Precursor Protein and its Role in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuroscience, 424, 184-202.
Washer S, Oguro-Ando A, Burrage J, Mill J, Jeffries A, Dempster E
(2019). FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCHIZOPHRENIA ASSOCIATED GENE AS3MT IN SH-SY5Y NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS. Author URL
Nelissen TP, Bamford RA, Tochitani S, Akkus K, Kudzinskas A, Yokoi K, Okamoto H, Yamamoto Y, Burbach JPH, Matsuzaki H, et al
(2018). CD38 is Required for Dendritic Organization in Visual Cortex and Hippocampus. Neuroscience
CD38 is Required for Dendritic Organization in Visual Cortex and Hippocampus.
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioral deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behavior. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioral phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behavior. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and its behavioral phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioral phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining. No difference was found in terms of cortical layer thickness. However, we found abnormalities in the number of neurons and neuronal morphology in the visual cortex and dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, there were arborisation differences between CD38-/- and CD38+/+ mice in the apical dendrites of the visual cortex and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The data suggest that CD38 is implicated in appropriate development of brain regions important for social behavior. Abstract
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Oguro-Ando A, Zuko A, Kleijer KTE, Burbach JPH
(2017). A current view on contactin-4, -5, and -6: Implications in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mol Cell Neurosci
A current view on contactin-4, -5, and -6: Implications in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN). This suggests that they have important functions during neurodevelopment. This suggestion is supported by data showing that neurite outgrowth, cell survival and neural circuit formation can be affected by disruption of these genes. Here, we review the current genetic data about their involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and explore studies on how null mutations affect mouse behavior. Finally, we highlight to role of protein-protein interactions in the potential mechanism of action of Cntn4, -5 and -6 and emphasize that complexes with other membrane proteins may play a role in neuronal developmental functions. Abstract
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Zuko A, Oguro-Ando A, Post H, Taggenbrock RLRE, van Dijk RE, Altelaar AFM, Heck AJR, Petrenko AG, van der Zwaag B, Shimoda Y, et al (2016). Association of Cell Adhesion Molecules Contactin-6 and Latrophilin-1 Regulates Neuronal Apoptosis. FRONTIERS IN MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE, 9
Zuko A, Oguro-Ando A, van Dijk R, Gregorio-Jordan S, van der Zwaag B, Burbach JPH
(2016). Developmental role of the cell adhesion molecule Contactin-6 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cell Adh Migr
Developmental role of the cell adhesion molecule Contactin-6 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
The gene encoding the neural cell adhesion molecule Contactin-6 (Cntn6 a.k.a. NB-3) has been implicated as an autism risk gene, suggesting that its mutation is deleterious to brain development. Due to its GPI-anchor at Cntn6 may exert cell adhesion/receptor functions in complex with other membrane proteins, or serve as a ligand. We aimed to uncover novel phenotypes related to Cntn6 functions during development in the cerebral cortex of adult Cntn6(-/-) mice. We first determined Cntn6 protein and mRNA expression in the cortex, thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus at P14, which decreased specifically in the cortex at adult stages. Neuroanatomical analysis demonstrated a significant decrease of Cux1+ projection neurons in layers II-IV and an increase of FoxP2+ projection neurons in layer VI in the visual cortex of adult Cntn6(-/-) mice compared to wild-type controls. Furthermore, the number of parvalbumin+ (PV) interneurons was decreased in Cntn6(-/-) mice, while the amount of NPY+ interneurons remained unchanged. In the hippocampus the delineation and outgrowth of mossy fibers remained largely unchanged, except for the observation of a larger suprapyramidal bundle. The observed abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Cntn6(-/-) mice suggests that Cntn6 serves developmental functions involving cell survival, migration and fasciculation. Furthermore, these data suggest that Cntn6 engages in both trans- and cis-interactions and may be involved in larger protein interaction networks. Abstract
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Bruining H, Matsui A, Oguro-Ando A, Kahn RS, Van't Spijker HM, Akkermans G, Stiedl O, van Engeland H, Koopmans B, van Lith HA, et al
(2015). Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development. Biol Psychiatry
Genetic Mapping in Mice Reveals the Involvement of Pcdh9 in Long-Term Social and Object Recognition and Sensorimotor Development.
BACKGROUND: Quantitative genetic analysis of basic mouse behaviors is a powerful tool to identify novel genetic phenotypes contributing to neurobehavioral disorders. Here, we analyzed genetic contributions to single-trial, long-term social and nonsocial recognition and subsequently studied the functional impact of an identified candidate gene on behavioral development. METHODS: Genetic mapping of single-trial social recognition was performed in chromosome substitution strains, a sophisticated tool for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) of complex traits. Follow-up occurred by generating and testing knockout (KO) mice of a selected QTL candidate gene. Functional characterization of these mice was performed through behavioral and neurological assessments across developmental stages and analyses of gene expression and brain morphology. RESULTS: Chromosome substitution strain 14 mapping studies revealed an overlapping QTL related to long-term social and object recognition harboring Pcdh9, a cell-adhesion gene previously associated with autism spectrum disorder. Specific long-term social and object recognition deficits were confirmed in homozygous (KO) Pcdh9-deficient mice, while heterozygous mice only showed long-term social recognition impairment. The recognition deficits in KO mice were not associated with alterations in perception, multi-trial discrimination learning, sociability, behavioral flexibility, or fear memory. Rather, KO mice showed additional impairments in sensorimotor development reflected by early touch-evoked biting, rotarod performance, and sensory gating deficits. This profile emerged with structural changes in deep layers of sensory cortices, where Pcdh9 is selectively expressed. CONCLUSIONS: This behavior-to-gene study implicates Pcdh9 in cognitive functions required for long-term social and nonsocial recognition. This role is supported by the involvement of Pcdh9 in sensory cortex development and sensorimotor phenotypes. Abstract
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Oguro-Ando A, Rosensweig C, Herman E, Nishimura Y, Werling D, Bill BR, Berg JM, Gao F, Coppola G, Abrahams BS, et al
(2015). Increased CYFIP1 dosage alters cellular and dendritic morphology and dysregulates mTOR. Mol Psychiatry
Increased CYFIP1 dosage alters cellular and dendritic morphology and dysregulates mTOR.
Rare maternally inherited duplications at 15q11-13 are observed in ~1% of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), making it among the most common causes of ASD. 15q11-13 comprises a complex region, and as this copy number variation encompasses many genes, it is important to explore individual genotype-phenotype relationships. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1) is of particular interest because of its interaction with Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), its upregulation in transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with duplications at 15q11-13 and ASD and the presence of smaller overlapping deletions of CYFIP1 in patients with schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Here, we confirm that CYFIP1 is upregulated in transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and demonstrate its upregulation in the post-mortem brain from 15q11-13 duplication patients for the first time. To investigate how increased CYFIP1 dosage might predispose to neurodevelopmental disease, we studied the consequence of its overexpression in multiple systems. We show that overexpression of CYFIP1 results in morphological abnormalities including cellular hypertrophy in SY5Y cells and differentiated mouse neuronal progenitors. We validate these results in vivo by generating a BAC transgenic mouse, which overexpresses Cyfip1 under the endogenous promotor, observing an increase in the proportion of mature dendritic spines and dendritic spine density. Gene expression profiling on embryonic day 15 suggested the dysregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which was confirmed at the protein level. Importantly, similar evidence of mTOR-related dysregulation was seen in brains from 15q11-13 duplication patients with ASD. Finally, treatment of differentiated mouse neuronal progenitors with an mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) rescued the morphological abnormalities resulting from CYFIP1 overexpression. Together, these data show that CYFIP1 overexpression results in specific cellular phenotypes and implicate modulation by mTOR signaling, further emphasizing its role as a potential convergent pathway in some forms of ASD. Abstract
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Berg JM, Lee C, Chen L, Galvan L, Cepeda C, Chen JY, Peñagarikano O, Stein JL, Li A, Oguro-Ando A, et al
(2015). JAKMIP1, a Novel Regulator of Neuronal Translation, Modulates Synaptic Function and Autistic-like Behaviors in Mouse. Neuron
JAKMIP1, a Novel Regulator of Neuronal Translation, Modulates Synaptic Function and Autistic-like Behaviors in Mouse.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heritable, common neurodevelopmental disorder with diverse genetic causes. Several studies have implicated protein synthesis as one among several of its potential convergent mechanisms. We originally identified Janus kinase and microtubule-interacting protein 1 (JAKMIP1) as differentially expressed in patients with distinct syndromic forms of ASD, fragile X syndrome, and 15q duplication syndrome. Here, we provide multiple lines of evidence that JAKMIP1 is a component of polyribosomes and an RNP translational regulatory complex that includes fragile X mental retardation protein, DEAD box helicase 5, and the poly(A) binding protein cytoplasmic 1. JAKMIP1 loss dysregulates neuronal translation during synaptic development, affecting glutamatergic NMDAR signaling, and results in social deficits, stereotyped activity, abnormal postnatal vocalizations, and other autistic-like behaviors in the mouse. These findings define an important and novel role for JAKMIP1 in neural development and further highlight pathways regulating mRNA translation during synaptogenesis in the genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Abstract
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Molenhuis RT, Oguro-Ando A, Burbach JP, Bruining H, Kas MJ
(2014). Deletion of contactin-4 leads to cognitive rigidity and aberrant cortex development in mice. Author URL
Molenhuis RT, Oguro-Ando A, Burbach JP, Bruining H, Kas MJ
(2014). Deletion of contactin-4 leads to cognitive rigidity and aberrant motor cortex development in mice. Author URL
Zuko A, Oguro-Ando A, Kleijer KTE, Van der Zwaag B, Post H, Altelaar AFM, Heck AJR, Pasterkamp RJ, Burbach JPH
(2014). Interaction of the autism gene product contactin-6 with synaptic proteins. Author URL
Zuko A, Oguro-Ando A, Kleijer KTE, van der Zwaag B, Post H, Altelaar AFM, Heck AJR, Pasterkamp RJ, Burbach JPH
(2014). Interaction of the autism gene product contactin-6 with synaptic proteins. Author URL
Shimizu M, Oguro-Ando A, Ohoto-Fujita E, Atomi Y
(2014). Toll-interacting protein pathway: degradation of an ubiquitin-binding protein. Methods Enzymol
Toll-interacting protein pathway: degradation of an ubiquitin-binding protein.
The nine neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington disease (HD) are caused by the expansion of a trinucleotide CAG repeats (polyQ), which are located within the coding of the affected gene. Previous studies suggested that a gain of toxic function by polyQ repeats is widely thought to have a major role in pathogenesis. PolyQ-expanded htt induced ubiquitinated aggregates cause cell death in neuronal cells. Using a HD cellular model, we demonstrate that Tollip protects cells against the toxicity of polyQ-expanded htt and also protects cells from death (Oguro, Kubota, Shimizu, Ishiura, & Atomi, 2011). Tom1 which belongs to the VHS domain-containing protein family is also found to be directly binding to ubiquitin chains and Tollip (Katoh et al. 2004; Yamakami, Yoshimori, & Yokosawa, 2003). Tollip recruits misfolded protein to aggresome via late endosome. The cell system can be used to determine if your protein of interest is controlled under a part of Tollip pathway or not among other cell homeostatic systems: molecular chaperons, autophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Tollip can be used for polyQ cell toxicity sensor by detecting microtubule-dependent trafficking and aggresome colocalization of aggregated protein. Abstract
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Zuko A, Kleijer KTE, Oguro-Ando A, Kas MJH, van Daalen E, van der Zwaag B, Burbach JPH
(2013). Contactins in the neurobiology of autism. Eur J Pharmacol
Contactins in the neurobiology of autism.
Autism is a disease of brain plasticity. Inspiring work of Willem Hendrik Gispen on neuronal plasticity has stimulated us to investigate gene defects in autism and the consequences for brain development. The central process in the pathogenesis of autism is local dendritic mRNA translation which is dependent on axodendritic communication. Hence, most autism-related gene products (i) are part of the protein synthesis machinery itself, (ii) are components of the mTOR signal transduction pathway, or (iii) shape synaptic activity and plasticity. Accordingly, prototype drugs have been recognized that interfere with these pathways. The contactin (CNTN) family of Ig cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) harbours at least three members that have genetically been implicated in autism: CNTN4, CNTN5, and CNTN6. In this chapter we review the genetic and neurobiological data underpinning their role in normal and abnormal development of brain systems, and the consequences for behavior. Although data on each of these CNTNs are far from complete, we tentatively conclude that these three contactins play roles in brain development in a critical phase of establishing brain systems and their plasticity. They modulate neuronal activities, such as neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, survival, guidance of projections and terminal branching of axons in forming neural circuits. Current research on these CNTNs concentrate on the neurobiological mechanism of their developmental functions. A future task will be to establish if proposed pharmacological strategies to counteract ASD-related symptomes can also be applied to reversal of phenotypes caused by genetic defects in these CNTN genes. Abstract
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Oguro-Ando A, Rosensweig C, Herman E, Nishimura Y, Werling D, Berg J, Gao F, Coppola G, Abrahams B, Geschwind D, et al
(2012). Cyfip1, a gene located within the 15q duplication region, regulates neuron morphological changes through the mTOR cascade. Author URL
Oguro A, Kubota H, Shimizu M, Ishiura S, Atomi Y
(2011). Protective role of the ubiquitin binding protein Tollip against the toxicity of polyglutamine-expansion proteins. Neurosci Lett
Protective role of the ubiquitin binding protein Tollip against the toxicity of polyglutamine-expansion proteins.
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats in the amino-terminal of hungtintin (htt). PolyQ-expanded htt forms intracellular ubiquitinated aggregates in neurons and causes neuronal cell death. Here, utilizing a HD cellular model, we report that Tollip, an ubiquitin binding protein that participates in intracellular transport via endosomes, co-localizes with and stimulates aggregation of polyQ-expanded amino-terminal htt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Tollip protects cells against the toxicity of polyQ-expanded htt. We propose that association of Tollip with polyubiquitin accelerates aggregation of toxic htt species into inclusions and thus provides a cell protective role by sequestration. Abstract
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Oguro-Ando A (2008). Gravity Response and Disuse Atrophy in Skeletal Muscle: Understanding from Extracellular Matrix-Collagen and its Molecular Chaperon HSP47. Biological Sciences in Space, 22(4).
Oguro A, Sakurai T, Fujita Y, Lee S, Kubota H, Nagata K, Atomi Y
(2006). The molecular chaperone HSP47 rapidly senses gravitational changes in myoblasts. Genes Cells
The molecular chaperone HSP47 rapidly senses gravitational changes in myoblasts.
Skeletal muscle unloading induced by spaceflight or bed rest leads to muscle atrophy. It is unclear how muscle atrophy is caused and how muscles respond to microgravity. We addressed the response of collagen and its chaperone system to gravitational forces. We show here that expression of HSP47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, responds to gravitational changes, including microgravity and hypergravity in vitro and in vivo. By using the method hindlimb suspension of rats, which mimics microgravity conditions, we demonstrated that the expression of Hsp47 mRNA decreased within 1 day and the mRNA levels of collagen types I and IV were subsequently reduced. In contrast, hypergravity stimulated HSP47 expression. HSP47 and collagen types I and IV were localized intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi apparatus of myoblasts, as expected. Intriguingly, Hsp47 mRNA levels in cultured myoblasts increased significantly with hypergravity treatment at 40G for 2 h, and decreased with microgravity treatment at almost 0G for 1-2 h. Collagen mRNA levels were also altered, although changes were slower and less pronounced compared with those for HSP47. The gravity-regulated HSP47 may play a role in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix by modulating collagen production at the primary stage of adaptation. Abstract
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Sakurai T, Fujita Y, Ohto E, Oguro A, Atomi Y
(2005). The decrease of the cytoskeleton tubulin follows the decrease of the associating molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin in unloaded soleus muscle atrophy without stretch. FASEB J
The decrease of the cytoskeleton tubulin follows the decrease of the associating molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin in unloaded soleus muscle atrophy without stretch.
The cytoskeletal component tubulin/microtubule commonly allows the cell to respond mechanically to the environment. The concentration of free tubulin dimer is autoregulated in the balance of free dimer and polymeric forms of microtubule (MT) protein, having an intrinsic property of "dynamic instability", and through cotranslational beta-tubulin mRNA degradation. Recently, we have demonstrated that alphaB-crystallin is a key molecule of muscle atrophy, since alphaB-crystallin has a chaperone-like-activity that suppresses tubulin aggregation and protects the MT disassembly against both Ca2+ and depolymelizing alkaloid in vitro. Most of the small heat-shock proteins (sHsps), including alphaB-crystallin, are expressed in skeletal muscle. However, no report to date has studied the changes of tubulin/MT during muscle adaptation. Here, we examined changes in tubulin content in rat soleus muscles after hindlimb suspension (HS) with/without passive stretch and the recovery. HS induced rapid decreases of soleus muscle mass, most Hsps (alphaB-crystallin, Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp27, and p20) and tubulin contents in soleus muscle, while heat-shock cognate 70-kDa protein (Hsc70) did not decrease. Soleus muscle mass, most Hsps, and tubulin were maintained with passive stretch. After 5 days' recovery, the levels of tubulin and Hsps, but not Hsc70, were restored to control levels. The interactions of alphaB-crystallin and tubulin/MT were observed with immunoprecipitation with an anti-alpha-tubulin antibody and taxol-dependent MT assembly. Other sHsps were also associated with alphaB-crystallin and MT, whereas Hsp90 and Hsp70 did not co-precipitate with them. These data imply an interaction and close relationship between alphaB-crystallin and tubulin/MTs in muscle tissues. The amount of mRNA of alphaB-crystallin decreased with the muscle atrophy level, whereas the gene expression level of betaI-tubulin was maintained during HS. This means a significant role of post-transcriptional regulation in tubulin/MT system in muscle adaptation, whereas alphaB-crystallin and most sHsps are regulated at the transcriptional level. Additional functional contribution of alphaB-crystallin to tubulin/MTs during myotube formation was examined using C2C12 myoblast cultured cells, the alphaB-crystallin expression of which was decreased or increased. It indicated the necessity of alphaB-crystallin during microtubule reorganization. In conclusion, tubulin/MTs were revealed to be one of the substrates of alphaB-crystallin, and also serial decreases of alphaB-crystallin and tubulin/MT in early soleus muscle atrophy suggest that the chaperone effect of alphaB-crystallin on the cytoskeleton, which may be also dynamically regulated in the muscle cell, is a key mechanism for muscle adaptation and protection of the atrophy and also muscle differentiation. Abstract
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Oguro A, Sakurai T, Okuno M, Nagata K, Atomi Y
(2004). The change of HSP47, collagen specific molecular chaperone, expression in rat skeletal muscle may regulate collagen production with gravitational conditions. Biol Sci Space
The change of HSP47, collagen specific molecular chaperone, expression in rat skeletal muscle may regulate collagen production with gravitational conditions.
It is well known that unloading of skeletal muscle with spaceflight leads skeletal muscle atrophy. However, it remains unclear how the extracellular matrix within the muscle and the connective tissues such as tendon and ligament respond to reduced mechanical load including microgravity, although they have been thought to play important roles in both the transmission of force and the signal transduction between cells and tissues. Type-I collagen and type-IV collagen, both of the major components of extracellular matrix and connective tissues. We focused on change of these collagen synthesis with mechanical load. To obtain an insight into the effects of gravitational changing on the protein metabolism of collagen in skeletal muscle during mechanical unloading, reloading after unloading, we investigated changes in the amount of Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), has been postulated to be a collagen-specific molecular chaperone localized in the ER (Nagata et al, 1992). Western blot analysis revealed that HSP47 in rat soleus muscle decreases at 5 days after hindlimb suspension (HS). On the other hand, HSP47 in rat soleus muscle increases at 5 days after hypergravity (HG) induced by the centrifugation. RT-PCR analysis showed HSP47 mRNA decreased with HS earlier, as compared with collagen type-I and type-IV mRNA. From these results, the amount of HSP47 changing by gravitational condition may effect on signal transfers in the primary stage of adaptation and the change of HSP47 expression in skeletal muscle may regulate collagen production with gravitational conditions. Abstract
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Oguro A, Sakurai T, Otawa M, Okuno M, Atomi Y
(2003). The content of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific stress protein, changes with gravitational conditions in skeletal muscle. Biol Sci Space
The content of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific stress protein, changes with gravitational conditions in skeletal muscle.
It is well known that unloading of skeletal muscle with spaceflight or tail suspension leads rat soleus muscle atrophy. Previously, we reported that one of small heat shock protein (sHSP), alpha B-crystallin shows an early dramatic decrease in atrophied rat soleus muscle (Atomi et al, 1991). In this report, we focused to study the gravitational responses of another HSP, which may be reactive to the gravity. HSP47, a collagen-specific stress protein, has been postulated to be a collagen-specific molecular chaperone localized in the ER (Nagata et al, 1992). Western blot analysis revealed that HSP47 in slow skeletal muscle decreases at 5 days after tail suspension (TS) and increased at 5 days recovery after 10 days of TS as compared with the control level. Hypothetically, HSP47 in slow soleus muscle increases at 5 days after hypergravity (HG) induced by the centrifugation. The content of HSP47 in soleus muscle was strongly affected by gravity conditions. Abstract
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