Skip to main content


Applied Radiographic Knowledge (ARK) 1

Module titleApplied Radiographic Knowledge (ARK) 1
Module codeRAD1001DA
Academic year2023/4
Module staff

Dr Abasiama Dick Obotiba (Lecturer)

Ms Liliana Rodrigues (Lecturer)

Duration: Term123
Duration: Weeks

Please see note below

Number students taking module (anticipated)


Description - summary of the module content

Module description

Please note that Degree Apprenticeship programmes have variable start dates and modules are taught across the full year. 

This module introduces relevant anatomy and physiology and the scientific concepts underpinning Medical Imaging.

The module commences with an attendance block at the University of Exeter with an emphasis on face-to-face learning. The module then runs over a 12 month period with two further block attendances across the year for further face-to-face learning. In the non-block weeks there will be protected ‘off the job’ learning (one day (7.5 hours) per week) supported by e-learning materials provided by the academic team. The full calendar of activities and assessment will be made available via the handbook. Annual leave may be booked in accordance with the requirements laid out in the handbook

Module aims - intentions of the module

The aim of this module is to enable you to develop knowledge of the essential multi-disciplinary sciences that underpin diagnostic radiography practice with a focus on projection radiography. 

During this module you will learn about the anatomy and physiology of the human body, including surface anatomy. You will learn about how x-rays are produced and interact with the body to form medical images. By learning about these interactions you will gain understanding of the safety implications of working with and exposing patients to ionising radiation, so that you are able to use ionising radiation safely in practice. This includes being introduced to the legislative framework for the use of ionising radiation in medical imaging. You will be introduced to digital imaging as used in medical imaging, and the principles of image (and therefore dose) optimisation.

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

ILO: Module-specific skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 1. Apply to practice the scientific principles of ionising radiation, how ionising radiation interacts with tissues, and principles of radiation protection and radiation protection legislation.
  • 2. Apply the principles of image formation, image receptor design and image optimisation in projection radiography and fluoroscopy.
  • 3. Understand the principles of equipment and room design in projection radiography and fluoroscopy.
  • 4. Understand quality assurance and quality control tests typically undertaken in projection radiography and fluoroscopy.
  • 5. Demonstrate knowledge of normal human anatomy including surface anatomy.
  • 6. Demonstrate knowledge of normal physiology at the systems level.

ILO: Discipline-specific skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 7. Demonstrate reasoning and mathematical skills to support level 4 work
  • 8. Use appropriate sources of information to develop own knowledge

ILO: Personal and key skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 9. Manage time and, with guidance, prioritise workloads
  • 10. Demonstrate basic problem solving skills

Syllabus plan

Syllabus plan

Whilst the module’s precise content may vary from year to year, an example of an overall structure is as follows: 


Underpinning scientific principles

Molecules, atoms, nuclei, electrons, ions, isotopes.

Electromagnetic spectrum, photons.

X-ray production: Bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation

Radioactive decay: alpha- , beta-, and gamma-decay.

Interactions with tissues

X-ray interaction: Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production.

Introductory radiobiology.

Radiation protection

Radiation dose, radiation units

Dosimetry: practical devices

Radiation protection – staff, including personnel monitoring.

Radiation protection – patients, including dose recording

Risk-benefit philosophy and associated constraints on practice


Overview of legislation and regulations for radiation protection -The Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017,

The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2017, Local Rules

Record keeping and information for patients 


Digital Imaging

Image receptor design, x-ray interactions with image receptors

Technical evaluation of images (spatial resolution, SNR, CNR, histograms etc)

Sources of noise and how to minimise this

Exposure Factors

kVp, mA, mAs – relationship to image appearances, impact of manipulation upon image quality

Appropriate exposure factor selection, image optimisation 


Projection Radiography

X-Ray tube, bucky, couch and other equipment design

Room layout – safe and efficient practice


X-Ray tube, Image intensifiers, flat plate detectors, couch and other equipment design

Room layout – safe and efficient practice 


Projection Radiography

QA and QC tests typically undertaken in a general department

Identify quality assurance and quality control tests typically undertaken for image receptors and digital imaging systems


QA and QC tests typically undertaken in fluoroscopy 


Normal human anatomy

Axial skeleton – joints, associated musculature and other tissues

Appendicular skeleton – joints, associated musculature and other tissues

Head, neck, thorax and abdomen, principal internal organs, including surface anatomy 


Normal Human Physiology

Musculoskeletal system, nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, renal and digestive systems, sight and hearing, endocrine system and growth & development, reproductive physiology.

Surface Anatomy

Relation of internal anatomy to surface landmarks 


Mathematical skills

Numbers, physical quantities, symbols and units.

Equations: simplifying, rearranging and solving.

Learning and teaching

Learning activities and teaching methods (given in hours of study time)

Scheduled Learning and Teaching ActivitiesGuided independent studyPlacement / study abroad

Details of learning activities and teaching methods

CategoryHours of study timeDescription
Scheduled learning and teaching activities99 x 1 hour lectures
Scheduled learning and teaching activities93 x 3 hour practical sessions in lab
Scheduled learning and teaching activities4040 x 1 hour e-learning resources
Guided independent study29Directed reading, private study and revision
This module is delivered as part of an integrated degree apprenticeship programme. The total required study hours for the programme have been designed in accordance with the ESFA regulations.


Formative assessment

Form of assessmentSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Progress Tests*3 x 2 hours1-10Oral

Summative assessment (% of credit)

CourseworkWritten examsPractical exams

Details of summative assessment

Form of assessment% of creditSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Examination (MCQ)*1002 hours (120 questions)1-10Written


Details of re-assessment (where required by referral or deferral)

Original form of assessmentForm of re-assessmentILOs re-assessedTimescale for re-assessment
Examination (MCQ)*Examination (MCQ)1-105 weeks after mark release

Re-assessment notes

This programme runs to a non-standard timetable. Assessment weeks and Assessment, Progression & Awarding Committees (APACs) for both initial and deferred assessments are held as per the programme’s published timetable.

* The aim of progress-testing is deep learning and long-term retention of material.  Each progress test assessment therefore includes questions from all of the Applied Radiographic Knowledge modules: RAD1001DA, RAD2001DA and RAD3001DA. Each assessment contains an equal number of questions from each module and the pass mark is scaled to reflect the proportion of the curriculum taught at the stage of assessment. Please refer to the 'Assessment’ section on the ‘Diagnostic Radiographer - Programme Information’ ELE page for further details about scaling.


Indicative learning resources - Basic reading

Graham D.T., Cloke P. and Vosper M. (2012), Principles and Applications of Radiological Physics (6th edition), Churchill Livingstone, ISBN 9780702052156 electronic version also available 

Carlton R.R. and Adler A.M. (2013), Radiographic Imaging Concepts and Principles (5th edition), Delmar, ISBN 1473720524 

McQuillen Marten (2019) Radiographic Image Analysis 5th edition ISBN 978-0-323-52281-6

McQuillen Marten (2019) Radiographic Image Analysis workbook ISBN 978-0-323-54463-4 

Ross & Wilson. (2018) Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness, 13edition ISBN-13: 978-0702072765

Ross & Wilson.(2018) , Anatomy and Physiology Colouring and Workbook (5th edition) ISBN 978-0-7020-7325-0

Indicative learning resources - Web based and electronic resources

UK Statutory Instruments (2017), Ionising Radiation Regulations 2017, The Stationary Office, Available from,

UK Statutory Instruments (2017), The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2017, The Stationery Office, Available from, 

UK Statutory Instruments (2018), The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) (Amendment) Regulations 2018, The Stationary Office, Available from,  

The Health & Safety Executive (2018), Work with Ionising Radiation. Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017: Approved Code of Practice and Guidance, HSE Books, ISBN 9780717666621,

Module has an active ELE page

Indicative learning resources - Other resources

Bushong S.  (2017), Radiologic Science for Technologists (10th edition), Elsevier, ISBN 9780323353779 

Carter C. and Veale B. (2013), Digital Radiography and PACS (2nd edition), Mosby Elsevier, ISBN 978-0323086448 

Tortora G.J. and Derrickson B. (2017), Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (15th edition), John Wiley, ISBN 9781119382928 electronic version also available

Key words search

Medical Imaging; Radiation, Regulations, Physiology; Anatomy

Credit value30
Module ECTS


Module pre-requisites


Module co-requisites

RAD1003DA, RAD1004DA

NQF level (module)


Available as distance learning?


Origin date


Last revision date