Skip to main content

University of Exeter Medical School

Professor William Gaze

Professor William Gaze

Professor in Microbiology

 01326259429 or 01872258149

 Environment and Sustainability Institute 2.06


Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK


I am a Professor of Microbiology at The European Centre for Environment and Human Health, part of the University of Exeter Medical School. I lead a large research group focusing on the environmental dimension of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with recent and current funding of ~£ 4mn with over 20 group members. We research the evolution of resistance in complex microbial communities found in human, animal and environmental microbiomes, we study the dissemination of AMR at a landscape scale and human exposure and transmission in aquatic environments. Specific focus is given to interactions with stakeholders from government, regulators and industry through a NERC Knowledge Exchange Fellowship awarded to Gaze in 2019. We advise the United Nations, World Health Organisation, UK and overseas governments on AMR.


BSc Marine Biology

PhD aquatic ecology / protist biology


Previous posts included Associate Professor at the University of Exeter, Senior Research Fellow and Research Fellow at the School of Life Sciences University of Warwick, Post-doctoral Research Associate at the Natural History Museum and Post-doctoral Research Associate at the Japan Marine Science and Technology Centre.


Research group links

Back to top


Research interests

Will has >15 years research experience of AMR research in natural environments. Current activity within his group (~20 researchers, >£3 mn in current and recent AMR funding) covers fundamental issues of AMR evolution in the environment using in situ and in vivo experiments, landscape scale dissemination of AMR and human exposure and transmission studies. He has been invited to speak on AMR on 5 continents in the last 2 years and has advised UK and overseas governments, UNEP/WHO, European Environment Agency, UK Environment Agency and Defra.

Research projects

UK:Argentina AMR DHSC/UKAID towards developing a systems model of AMR focusing on feed-lot beef production systems as an exemplar.

JPIAMR network grant on environmental AMR surveillance

NERC Knowledge Exhange Fellowship on AMR and the environment

Studying selection for AMR at low concentrations (BBSRC/AstraZeneca)

Co-selection for AMR by heavy metals (Exeter University)

AMR in bees (BBSRC)

CRISPR-Cas as a tool to combat AMR (MRC)

Wild birds as vectors of AMR (ESIF)

Aquatic organisms as sentinels for AMR in rivers (NERC)

Human exposure to AMR in coastal waters in Hong Kong (Exeter/Chinese University of Hong Kong)

Knowledge Exchange Fellowship on AMR and Environment with Defra, EA water and pharmaceutical industries (NERC)

In situ selection for AMR in rivers (NERC theme 3 consortium grant with CEH and Warwick)

Utilising metagenomics and mathematical modelling to understand drivers of increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the aquatic environment (NERC)

Research networks

WG is part of an international network of researchers from academia, medicine and the pharmaceutical industry who are working on links between antibiotic resistance in the clinic, and selection and dissemination in farmed and natural environments. He leads a JPIAMR network on environmental AMR surevillance including 21 partenrs from 15 countries.

Research grants

  • 2016 NERC
    Studying in situ selection for antibiotic resistance in aquatic systems
  • 2015 BBSRC PhD Studentship
    Evolution of antimicrobial resistance
  • 2013 NERC
    NERC CASE studentship with Aquatic Water Services on norovirus transmission in aquatic systems

Back to top


Journal articles

Sweetapple C, Melville-Shreeve P, Chen AS, Grimsley JMS, Bunce JT, Gaze W, Fielding S, Wade MJ (In Press). Building knowledge of university campus population dynamics to enhance near-to-source sewage surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 detection.  Abstract.
Murray AK, Zhang L, Snape J, Gaze W (In Press). Comparing the selective and co-selective effects of different antimicrobials in bacterial communities. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Boase N, White M, Redshaw C, Gaze W (In Press). Evaluating the mental models approach to developing a risk communication: a scoping review of the evidence. Risk Analysis, In press
Longdon B, Samantha T (In Press). Metabarcoding of Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and Norovirus GII from wastewater samples in England using nanopore sequencing. Food and Environmental Virology Abstract.
Zhang L, Murray AK, Gaze W (In Press). Novel clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes associated with sewage sludge and industrial waste streams revealed by functional metagenomic screening. Environment International
Larsson DGJ, Gaze WH, Laxminarayan R, Topp E (2023). AMR, One Health and the environment. Nat Microbiol, 8(5), 754-755. Author URL.
Farrell ML, Chueiri A, O'Connor L, Duane S, Maguire M, Miliotis G, Cormican M, Hooban B, Leonard A, Gaze WH, et al (2023). Assessing the impact of recreational water use on carriage of antimicrobial resistant organisms. The Science of the Total Environment, 888
Munk P, Brinch C, Møller FD, Petersen TN, Hendriksen RS, Seyfarth AM, Kjeldgaard JS, Svendsen CA, van Bunnik B, Berglund F, et al (2023). Author Correction: Genomic analysis of sewage from 101 countries reveals global landscape of antimicrobial resistance (Nature Communications, (2022), 13, 1, (7251), 10.1038/s41467-022-34312-7). Nature Communications, 14(1). Abstract.
Murray AK, Zhang L, Snape J, Gaze WH (2023). Functional metagenomic libraries generated from anthropogenically impacted environments reveal importance of metabolic genes in biocide and antibiotic resistance. Current Research in Microbial Sciences, 4, 100184-100184.
Sünderhauf D, Klümper U, Gaze WH, Westra ER, van Houte S (2023). Interspecific competition can drive plasmid loss from a focal species in a microbial community. The ISME Journal, 17(10), 1765-1773. Abstract.
Walker-Sünderhauf D, Klümper U, Pursey E, Westra ER, Gaze WH, van Houte S (2023). Removal of AMR plasmids using a mobile, broad host-range CRISPR-Cas9 delivery tool. Microbiology (Reading), 169(5). Abstract.  Author URL.
Lear L, Hesse E, Newsome L, Gaze W, Buckling A, Vos M (2023). The effect of metal remediation on the virulence and antimicrobial resistance of the opportunistic pathogen <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Evolutionary Applications, 16(7), 1377-1389. Abstract.
Yin X, Chen X, Jiang X-T, Yang Y, Li B, Shum MH-H, Lam TTY, Leung GM, Rose J, Sanchez-Cid C, et al (2023). Toward a Universal Unit for Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Environmental Samples. Environ Sci Technol, 57(26), 9713-9721. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wu J, Guo S, Lin H, Li K, Li Z, Wang J, Gaze WH, Zou J (2023). Uncovering the prevalence and drivers of antibiotic resistance genes in soils across different land-use types. J Environ Manage, 344 Abstract.  Author URL.
Woods RD, Swaddle JP, Bearhop S, Colhoun K, Gaze WH, Kay SM, McDonald RA (2022). A Sonic Net deters European starlings <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i> from maize silage stores. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 46(4). Abstract.
Stevenson EM, Gaze WH, Gow NAR, Hart A, Schmidt W, Usher J, Warris A, Wilkinson H, Murray AK (2022). Antifungal Exposure and Resistance Development: Defining Minimal Selective Antifungal Concentrations and Testing Methodologies. Frontiers in Fungal Biology, 3
Rajendran NB, Arieti F, Mena-Benítez CA, Galia L, Tebon M, Alvarez J, Gladstone BP, Collineau L, De Angelis G, Duro R, et al (2022). EPI-Net One Health reporting guideline for antimicrobial consumption and resistance surveillance data: a Delphi approach. The Lancet Regional Health - Europe, 26
Stanton IC, Bethel A, Leonard AFC, Gaze WH, Garside R (2022). Existing evidence on antibiotic resistance exposure and transmission to humans from the environment: a systematic map. Environmental Evidence, 11(1). Abstract.
Thornber K, Adshead F, Balayannis A, Brazier R, Brown R, Comber S, Court C, Davidson I, Depledge M, Farmer C, et al (2022). First, do no harm: time for a systems approach to address the problem of health-care-derived pharmaceutical pollution. The Lancet Planetary Health, 6(12), e935-e937.
Munk P, Brinch C, Møller FD, Petersen TN, Hendriksen RS, Seyfarth AM, Kjeldgaard JS, Svendsen CA, van Bunnik B, Berglund F, et al (2022). Genomic analysis of sewage from 101 countries reveals global landscape of antimicrobial resistance. Nature Communications, 13(1). Abstract.
Leonard AF, Morris D, Schmitt H, Gaze WH (2022). Natural recreational waters and the risk that exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria poses to human health. Curr Opin Microbiol, 65, 40-46. Abstract.  Author URL.
Wang Y, Yu Z, Ding P, Lu J, Klümper U, Murray AK, Gaze WH, Guo J (2022). Non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals promote conjugative plasmid transfer at a community-wide level. Microbiome, 10(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Hayes A, May Murray L, Catherine Stanton I, Zhang L, Snape J, Hugo Gaze W, Kaye Murray A (2022). Predicting selection for antimicrobial resistance in UK wastewater and aquatic environments: Ciprofloxacin poses a significant risk. Environ Int, 169 Abstract.  Author URL.
Elder FCT, Pascoe B, Wells S, Sheppard SK, Snape J, Gaze WH, Feil EJ, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2022). Stereoselective metabolism of chloramphenicol by bacteria isolated from wastewater, and the importance of stereochemistry in environmental risk assessments for antibiotics. Water Res, 217 Abstract.  Author URL.
Manaia CM, Aga DS, Cytryn E, Gaze WH, Graham DW, Guo J, Leonard AFC, Li L, Murray AK, Nunes OC, et al (2022). The Complex Interplay Between Antibiotic Resistance and Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in the Environment. Environ Toxicol Chem Abstract.  Author URL.
Murray AK, Stanton I, Gaze WH, Snape J (2021). Dawning of a new ERA: Environmental Risk Assessment of antibiotics and their potential to select for antimicrobial resistance. Water Res, 200 Abstract.  Author URL.
Hillary LS, Farkas K, Maher KH, Lucaci A, Thorpe J, Distaso MA, Gaze WH, Paterson S, Burke T, Connor TR, et al (2021). Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 in municipal wastewater to evaluate the success of lockdown measures for controlling COVID-19 in the UK. Water Research, 200 Abstract.
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), Koutsoumanis K, Allende A, Álvarez-Ordóñez A, Bolton D, Bover-Cid S, Chemaly M, Davies R, De Cesare A, Herman L, et al (2021). Role played by the environment in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the food chain. EFSA J, 19(6). Abstract.  Author URL.
Elder FCT, Proctor K, Barden R, Gaze WH, Snape J, Feil EJ, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2021). Spatiotemporal profiling of antibiotics and resistance genes in a river catchment: Human population as the main driver of antibiotic and antibiotic resistance gene presence in the environment. Water Research, 203 Abstract.
Elder FCT, Feil EJ, Pascoe B, Sheppard SK, Snape J, Gaze WH, Kasprzyk-Hordern B (2021). Stereoselective Bacterial Metabolism of Antibiotics in Environmental Bacteria - a Novel Biochemical Workflow. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 12 Author URL.
Leonard AFC, Garside R, Ukoumunne OC, Gaze WH (2020). A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of illness in coastal bathers compared to non-bathers in England and Wales: Findings from the Beach User Health Survey. Water Research, 176, 115700-115700.
Marano RBM, Fernandes T, Manaia CM, Nunes O, Morrison D, Berendonk TU, Kreuzinger N, Tenson T, Corno G, Fatta-Kassinos D, et al (2020). A global multinational survey of cefotaxime-resistant coliforms in urban wastewater treatment plants. Environment International, 144, 106035-106035.
Ferraresso J, Lawton B, Bayliss S, Sheppard S, Cardazzo B, Gaze W, Buckling A, Vos M (2020). Determining the prevalence, identity and possible origin of bacterial pathogens in soil. Environ Microbiol, 22(12), 5327-5340. Abstract.  Author URL.
Stanton IC, Murray AK, Zhang L, Snape J, Gaze WH (2020). Evolution of antibiotic resistance at low antibiotic concentrations including selection below the minimal selective concentration. Commun Biol, 3(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Sheridan PO, Raguideau S, Quince C, Holden J, Zhang L, Gaze WH, Mead A, Singer AC, Wellington EMH, Zhang L, et al (2020). Gene duplication drives genome expansion in a major lineage of Thaumarchaeota. Nature Communications, 11(1). Abstract.
Landrigan PJ, Stegeman JJ, Fleming LE, Allemand D, Anderson DM, Backer LC, Brucker-Davis F, Chevalier N, Corra L, Czerucka D, et al (2020). Human Health and Ocean Pollution. ANNALS OF GLOBAL HEALTH, 86(1). Author URL.
Hayes A, Feil E, Kasprzyk-Horden B, Snape J, Zhang L, Gaze W, Murray A (2020). Investigating selection for antimicrobial resistance by non-antibiotic drugs (NADs). Access Microbiology, 2(7A).
Jones DL, Baluja MQ, Graham DW, Corbishley A, McDonald JE, Malham SK, Hillary LS, Connor TR, Gaze WH, Moura IB, et al (2020). Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in feces and urine and its potential role in person-to-person transmission and the environment-based spread of COVID-19. Sci Total Environ, 749 Abstract.  Author URL.
Elder FCT, Feil EJ, Snape JN, Gaze WH, Kasprzyk-Hordern BA (2020). The role of stereochemistry of antibiotic agents in the development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Environment International, 139 Abstract.
Murray L, Boxall A, Snape J, Gaze W, Murray A (2020). The selection and co-selection of antimicrobial resistance by non-antibiotic drugs and plant protection products. Access Microbiology, 2(7A).
Murray AK, Stanton IC, Wright J, Zhang L, Snape J, Gaze WH (2020). The ‘SELection end points in Communities of bacTeria’ (SELECT) Method: a Novel Experimental Assay to Facilitate Risk Assessment of Selection for Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 128(10).
Stanton IC, Bethel A, Leonard AFC, Gaze WH, Garside R (2020). What is the research evidence for antibiotic resistance exposure and transmission to humans from the environment? a systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence, 9(1). Abstract.
Vos M, Sibleyras L, Lo LK, Hesse E, Gaze W, Klümper U (2020). Zinc can counteract selection for ciprofloxacin resistance. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 367(3). Abstract.  Author URL.
Sünderhauf D, Pursey E, Klümper U, Westra E, Gaze W, van Houte S (2019). AMR gene removal by conjugative delivery of CRISPR-Cas9. Access Microbiology, 1(1A).
Rauseo J, Barra Caracciolo A, Ademollo N, Cardoni M, Di Lenola M, Gaze W, Stanton I, Grenni P, Pescatore T, Spataro F, et al (2019). Dissipation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole in a soil amended with anaerobically digested cattle manure. J Hazard Mater, 378 Abstract.  Author URL.
Klümper U, Recker M, Zhang L, Yin X, Zhang T, Buckling A, Gaze W (2019). Selection for antibiotic resistance is reduced when embedded in a natural microbial community.  Abstract.
Klumper U, Recker M, Zhang L, Yin X, Zhang T, Buckling A, Gaze W (2019). Selection for antimicrobial resistance is reduced when embedded in a natural microbial community. The ISME Journal
Klümper U, Maillard A, Hesse E, Bayer F, Houte SV, Longdon B, Gaze W, Buckling A (2019). Short-term evolution under copper stress increases probability of plasmid uptake.  Abstract.
Grenni P, Patrolecco L, Rauseo J, Spataro F, Di Lenola M, Aimola G, Zacchini M, Pietrini F, Di Baccio D, Stanton IC, et al (2019). Sulfamethoxazole persistence in a river water ecosystem and its effects on the natural microbial community and Lemna minor plant. Microchemical Journal, 149 Abstract.
Pursey E, Sünderhauf D, Paganelli F, Gaze W, Westra E, van Houte S (2019). Targeting antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates from healthcare-associated infections using CRISPR-Cas9. Access Microbiology, 1(1A).
Hernandez RJ, Hesse E, Dowling AJ, Coyle NM, Feil EJ, Gaze WH, Vos M (2019). Using the wax moth larva Galleria mellonella infection model to detect emerging bacterial pathogens. PeerJ, 6
Boase NJ, White MP, Gaze WH, Redshaw CH (2019). Why don't the British eat locally harvested shellfish? the role of misconceptions and knowledge gaps. Appetite, 143 Abstract.  Author URL.
Vos M, Sibleyras L, Lo LK, Hesse E, Gaze W, Klümper U (2019). Zinc can counteract selection for ciprofloxacin resistance.  Abstract.
Leonard AFC, Yin XL, Zhang T, Hui M, Gaze WH (2018). A coliform-targeted metagenomic method facilitating human exposure estimates to Escherichia coli-borne antibiotic resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 94(3). Abstract.  Author URL.
Pursey E, Sünderhauf D, Gaze WH, Westra ER, van Houte S (2018). CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials: Challenges and future prospects. PLoS Pathog, 14(6). Author URL.
Djenadi K, Zhang L, Murray AK, Gaze WH (2018). Carbapenem resistance in bacteria isolated from soil and water environments in Algeria. J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 15, 262-267. Abstract.  Author URL.
Larsson DGJ, Andremont A, Bengtsson-Palme J, Brandt KK, de Roda Husman AM, Fagerstedt P, Fick J, Flach C-F, Gaze WH, Kuroda M, et al (2018). Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance. Environ Int, 117, 132-138. Abstract.  Author URL.
Leonard AFC, Zhang L, Balfour AJ, Garside R, Hawkey PM, Murray AK, Ukoumunne OC, Gaze WH (2018). Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey). Environ Int, 114, 326-333. Abstract.  Author URL.
Leonard AFC, Singer A, Ukoumunne OC, Gaze WH, Garside R (2018). Is it safe to go back into the water? a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of acquiring infections from recreational exposure to seawater. Int J Epidemiol, 47(2), 572-586. Abstract.  Author URL.
Murray AK, Zhang L, Yin X, Zhang T, Buckling A, Snape J, Gaze WH (2018). Novel Insights into Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Complex Microbial Communities.  Abstract.
Murray AK, Zhang L, Yin X, Zhang T, Buckling A, Snape J, Gaze W (2018). Novel Insights into Selection for Antibiotic Resistance in Complex Microbial Communities. mBio
Zhang L (2018). Staphylococcus cornubiensis sp. nov. a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group (SIG). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Amos GCA, Ploumakis S, Zhang L, Hawkey PM, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH (2018). The widespread dissemination of integrons throughout bacterial communities in a riverine system. ISME Journal, 12(3), 681-691. Abstract.
Bürgmann H, Frigon D, H Gaze W, M Manaia C, Pruden A, Singer AC, F Smets B, Zhang T (2018). Water and sanitation: an essential battlefront in the war on antimicrobial resistance. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 94(9). Abstract.  Author URL.
Powell N, Davidson I, Yelling P, Collinson A, Pollard A, Johnson L, Gibson N, Taylor J, Wisner K, Gaze W, et al (2017). Developing a local antimicrobial resistance action plan: the Cornwall One Health Antimicrobial Resistance Group. J Antimicrob Chemother, 72(9), 2661-2665. Abstract.  Author URL.
Furness LE, Campbell A, Zhang L, Gaze WH, McDonald RA (2017). Wild small mammals as sentinels for the environmental transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Environ Res, 154, 28-34. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hunter JG, Madden RG, Stone AM, Osborne N, Wheeler B, Vine L, Dickson A, Barlow M, Lewis J, Bendall RP, et al (2016). Coastal clustering of HEV; Cornwall, UK. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 28(3), 323-327. Abstract.  Author URL.
Cleary DW, Bishop AH, Zhang L, Topp E, Wellington EMH, Gaze WH (2016). Long-term antibiotic exposure in soil is associated with changes in microbial community structure and prevalence of class 1 integrons. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 92(10). Abstract.  Author URL.
Salimraj R, Zhang L, Hinchliffe P, Wellington EMH, Brem J, Schofield CJ, Gaze WH, Spencer J (2016). Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Rm3, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase Identified from a Functional Metagenomic Study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 60(10), 5828-5840. Abstract.  Author URL.
Lehmann K, Bell T, Bowes MJ, Amos GCA, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH, Singer AC (2016). Trace levels of sewage effluent are sufficient to increase class 1 integron prevalence in freshwater biofilms without changing the core community. Water Res, 106, 163-170. Abstract.  Author URL.
Leonard AFC, Zhang L, Balfour AJ, Garside R, Gaze WH (2015). Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters. Environment International, 82, 92-100. Abstract.
Lee J, Murray A, Bendall R, Gaze W, Zhang L, Vos M (2015). Improved detection of Staphylococcus intermedius group in a routine diagnostic laboratory. J Clin Microbiol, 53(3), 961-963. Abstract.  Author URL.
King HC, Murphy A, James P, Travis E, Porter D, Sawyer J, Cork J, Delahay RJ, Gaze W, Courtenay O, et al (2015). Performance of a Noninvasive Test for Detecting Mycobacterium bovis Shedding in European Badger (Meles meles) Populations. J Clin Microbiol, 53(7), 2316-2323. Abstract.  Author URL.
Amos GCA, Carter A, Hawkey PM, Gaze WH, Wellington EM (2015). The hidden resistome of retail chicken meat. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 3(1), 44-46.
King HC, Murphy A, James P, Travis E, Porter D, Hung Y-J, Sawyer J, Cork J, Delahay RJ, Gaze W, et al (2015). The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers. Sci Rep, 5 Abstract.  Author URL.
Gillings MR, Gaze WH, Pruden A, Smalla K, Tiedje JM, Zhu YG (2015). Using the class 1 integron-integrase gene as a proxy for anthropogenic pollution. ISME Journal, 9(6), 1269-1279. Abstract.
Gillings MR, Gaze WH, Pruden A, Smalla K, Tiedje JM, Zhu Y-G (2015). Using the class 1 integron-integrase gene as a proxy for anthropogenic pollution. ISME J, 9(6), 1269-1279. Abstract.  Author URL.
Amos GC, Gozzard E, Carter CE, Mead A, Bowes MJ, Hawkey PM, Zhang L, Singer AC, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH, et al (2015). Validated predictive modelling of the environmental resistome. ISME Journal, 9(6), 1467-1476. Abstract.
Amos GCA, Gozzard E, Carter CE, Mead A, Bowes MJ, Hawkey PM, Zhang L, Singer AC, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH, et al (2015). Validated predictive modelling of the environmental resistome. ISME J, 9(6), 1467-1476. Abstract.  Author URL.
Dealtry S, Ding G-C, Weichelt V, Dunon V, Schlüter A, Martini MC, Del Papa MF, Lagares A, Amos GCA, Wellington EMH, et al (2014). Cultivation-independent screening revealed hot spots of IncP-1, IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmid occurrence in different environmental habitats. PLoS One, 9(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
Amos GCA, Zhang L, Hawkey PM, Gaze WH, Wellington EM (2014). Functional metagenomic analysis reveals rivers are a reservoir for diverse antibiotic resistance genes. Vet Microbiol, 171(3-4), 441-447. Abstract.  Author URL.
Leonard AFC, Zhang L, Balfour AJ, Garside R, Gaze WH (2014). Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters. Environment International Abstract.
Amos GCA, Hawkey PM, Gaze WH, Wellington EM (2014). Waste water effluent contributes to the dissemination of CTX-M-15 in the natural environment. J Antimicrob Chemother, 69(7), 1785-1791. Abstract.  Author URL.
Ashbolt NJ, Amézquita A, Backhaus T, Borriello P, Brandt KK, Collignon P, Coors A, Finley R, Gaze WH, Heberer T, et al (2013). Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) for environmental development and transfer of antibiotic resistance. Environ Health Perspect, 121(9), 993-1001. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaze WH, Krone SM, Larsson DGJ, Li X-Z, Robinson JA, Simonet P, Smalla K, Timinouni M, Topp E, Wellington EM, et al (2013). Influence of humans on evolution and mobilization of environmental antibiotic resistome. Emerg Infect Dis, 19(7). Abstract.  Author URL.
Wellington EMH, Boxall AB, Cross P, Feil EJ, Gaze WH, Hawkey PM, Johnson-Rollings AS, Jones DL, Lee NM, Otten W, et al (2013). The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Lancet Infect Dis, 13(2), 155-165. Abstract.  Author URL.
Finley RL, Collignon P, Larsson DGJ, McEwen SA, Li X-Z, Gaze WH, Reid-Smith R, Timinouni M, Graham DW, Topp E, et al (2013). The scourge of antibiotic resistance: the important role of the environment. Clin Infect Dis, 57(5), 704-710. Abstract.  Author URL.
Iqbal M, Mast Y, Amin R, Hodgson DA, Wohlleben W, Burroughs NJ (2012). Extracting regulator activity profiles by integration of <i>de novo</i> motifs and expression data: characterizing key regulators of nutrient depletion responses in <i>Streptomyces coelicolor</i>. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, 40(12), 5227-5239. Author URL.
Thomas L, Hodgson DA, Wentzel A, Nieselt K, Ellingsen TE, Moore J, Morrissey ER, Legaie R, Wohlleben W, Rodriguez-Garcia A, et al (2012). Metabolic Switches and Adaptations Deduced from the Proteomes of <i>Streptomyces coelicolor</i> Wild Type and <i>phoP</i> Mutant Grown in Batch Culture. MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS, 11(2). Author URL.
Battke F, Herbig A, Wentzel A, Jakobsen OM, Bonin M, Hodgson DA, Wohlleben W, Ellingsen TE, Nieselt K (2011). A Technical Platform for Generating Reproducible Expression Data from <i>Streptomyces</i> <i>coelicolor</i> Batch Cultivations. SOFTWARE TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, 696, 3-15. Author URL.
Travis ER, Gaze WH, Pontiroli A, Sweeney FP, Porter D, Mason S, Keeling MJC, Jones RM, Sawyer J, Aranaz A, et al (2011). An inter-laboratory validation of a real time PCR assay to measure host excretion of bacterial pathogens, particularly of Mycobacterium bovis. PLoS One, 6(11). Abstract.  Author URL.
Laskaris P, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH (2011). Environmental Reservoirs of Resistance Genes in Antibiotic-Producing Bacteria and Their Possible Impact on the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. , 73-91.
Gaze WH, Zhang L, Abdouslam NA, Hawkey PM, Calvo-Bado L, Royle J, Brown H, Davis S, Kay P, Boxall ABA, et al (2011). Impacts of anthropogenic activity on the ecology of class 1 integrons and integron-associated genes in the environment. ISME J, 5(8), 1253-1261. Abstract.  Author URL.
Byrne-Bailey KG, Gaze WH, Zhang L, Kay P, Boxall A, Hawkey PM, Wellington EMH (2011). Integron prevalence and diversity in manured soil. Appl Environ Microbiol, 77(2), 684-687. Abstract.  Author URL.
Anukool U, O'Neill CE, Butr-Indr B, Hawkey PM, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH (2011). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs from Thailand. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 38(1), 86-87. Author URL.
Gaze WH, Morgan G, Zhang L, Wellington EMH (2011). Mimivirus-like particles in acanthamoebae from Sewage Sludge. Emerg Infect Dis, 17(6), 1127-1129. Author URL.
Calvo-Bado LA, Oakley BB, Dowd SE, Green LE, Medley GF, Ul-Hassan A, Bateman V, Gaze W, Witcomb L, Grogono-Thomas R, et al (2011). Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome. ISME J, 5(9), 1426-1437. Abstract.  Author URL.
Pontiroli A, Travis ER, Sweeney FP, Porter D, Gaze WH, Mason S, Hibberd V, Holden J, Courtenay O, Wellington EMH, et al (2011). Pathogen quantitation in complex matrices: a multi-operator comparison of DNA extraction methods with a novel assessment of PCR inhibition. PLoS One, 6(3). Abstract.  Author URL.
Tsibidis GD, Burroughs NJ, Gaze W, Wellington EMH (2011). Semi-automated Acanthamoeba polyphaga detection and computation of Salmonella typhimurium concentration in spatio-temporal images. Micron, 42(8), 911-920. Abstract.  Author URL.
Alam MT, Merlo ME, Hodgson DA, Wellington EMH, Takano E, Breitling R (2010). Metabolic modeling and analysis of the metabolic switch in <i>Streptomyces coelicolor</i>. BMC GENOMICS, 11 Author URL.
Nieselt K, Battke F, Herbig A, Bruheim P, Wentzel A, Jakobsen ØM, Sletta H, Alam MT, Merlo ME, Moore J, et al (2010). The dynamic architecture of the metabolic switch in Streptomyces coelicolor. BMC Genomics, 11 Abstract.  Author URL.
Byrne-Bailey KG, Gaze WH, Kay P, Boxall ABA, Hawkey PM, Wellington EMH (2009). Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 53(2), 696-702. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaze W, O'Neill C, Wellington E, Hawkey P (2008). Antibiotic resistance in the environment, with particular reference to MRSA. Adv Appl Microbiol, 63, 249-280. Author URL.
Gaze W (2008). Is pollution driving antibiotic resistance?. Planet Earth(WINTER), 14-15. Abstract.
Burroughs NJ, Tsibidis GD, Gaze W, Wellington L (2008). Study of Spatial Biological Systems Using a Graphical User Interface. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on. Human-Computer Interaction 2003, pp. 48-52 Abstract.  Author URL.
Sweeney FP, Courtenay O, Hibberd V, Hewinson RG, Reilly LA, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH (2007). Environmental monitoring of Mycobacterium bovis in badger feces and badger sett soil by real-time PCR, as confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunocapture, and cultivation. Appl Environ Microbiol, 73(22), 7471-7473. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaze WH, Abdouslam N, Hawkey PM, Wellington EMH (2005). Incidence of class 1 integrons in a quaternary ammonium compound-polluted environment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49(5), 1802-1807. Abstract.  Author URL.
Anukool U, Gaze WH, Wellington EMH (2004). In situ monitoring of streptothricin production by Streptomyces rochei F20 in soil and rhizosphere. Appl Environ Microbiol, 70(9), 5222-5228. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaze WH, Burroughs N, Gallagher MP, Wellington EMH (2003). Interactions between Salmonella typhimurium and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and observation of a new mode of intracellular growth within contractile vacuoles. Microb Ecol, 46(3), 358-369. Abstract.  Author URL.
Hutchens E, Valsami-Jones E, McEldowney S, Gaze W, McLean J (2003). The role of heterotrophic bacteria in feldspar dissolution - an experimental approach. Mineralogical Magazine, 67(6), 1157-1170. Abstract.
Gaze WH, Wootten R (1999). An SEM study of adhesive disc skeletal structures isolated from trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of the genera Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 and Paratrichodina Lom, 1963. Syst Parasitol, 43(3), 167-174. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gaze WH, Wootten R (1998). Ectoparasitic species of the genus Trichodina (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) parasitising British freshwater fish. Folia Parasitol (Praha), 45(3), 177-190. Abstract.  Author URL.


Manaia CM, Graham D, Topp E, Martinez JL, Collignon P, Gaze WH (2020). Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment: Expert Perspectives. In  (Ed) Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 1-18.  Abstract.
Morningstar A, Gaze WH, Tolba S, Wellington EMH (2006). Evolving gene clusters in soil bacteria. In  (Ed) Prokaryotic Diversity: Mechanisms and Significance: Published for the Society for General Microbiology, 201-222.  Abstract.
Krsek M, Gaze WH, Morris NZ, Wellington EMH (2006). Gene Detection, Expression and Related Enzyme Activity in Soil. In  (Ed) Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Soil, Springer Nature, 217-255.


Leonard. A, Garside R, Ukoumunne O, Gaze W (2016). The beach bum survey: investigating the association between surfing and faecal carriage of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Hunter J, Madden R, Stone A, Osborne N, Wheeler B, Barlow M, Bendall R, Lin N, Henley W, Gaze W, et al (2012). HEPATITIS E (HEV) IN SOUTH WEST ENGLAND. GEOGRAPHICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS: a CASE CONTROL STUDY.  Author URL.
Byrne KG, Gaze W, Wellington EMH, Kay P, Blackwell P, Boxall A (2004). Bacterial antibiotic resistance levels in agricultural soils as a result of treatment with pig slurry and detection of sulphonamide resistance genes.  Author URL.

Back to top

External Engagement and Impact

Invited lectures

Keynote speaker, workshop on antibiotics in the environment. Xiamen, China, Dec, 2013.

Canadian Society of Microbiologists symposium on antibiotic resistance in the environment. Ottawa, June 2013

Invited speaker, Institute Pasteur, Paris 2010Metagenomic analyses of sewage sludge and waste water treatment plant effluent contaminated soil and sediment.

Media Coverage

Guardian / Observer article on antibiotic resistance in the environment

Back to top


Teaching interests include environment and human health, microbial ecology and specifically the evolution of antibiotic resistance



Back to top

Supervision / Group

Research Fellows

Postdoctoral researchers

  • Sahran Higgins
  • Matt Jones
  • Uli Klumper
  • Isobel Stanton
  • Kelly Thornber
  • Lihong Zhang

Postgraduate researchers

  • Laura Bulson Ben Longdon 1st supervisor
  • Andy Fitzgerald
  • Louis Jolly
  • Cara Patel
  • David Sunderhauf
  • Holly Tipper
  • Olivia Turner

Back to top

Edit Profile