Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health Professions


Applied Radiographic Knowledge (ARK) 2

Module titleApplied Radiographic Knowledge (ARK) 2
Module codeRAD2001DA
Academic year2021/2
Module staff

Dr Clare Thorn ()

Duration: Term123
Duration: Weeks

Please see note below

Number students taking module (anticipated)


Description - summary of the module content

Module description

Please note that Degree Apprenticeship programmes have variable start dates and modules are taught across the full year. 

This module builds on Applied Radiographic Knowledge (ARK) 1 and aims to further develop your knowledge of the science and technology underpinning medical imaging. During this module, the scientific and technological knowledge is extended to include the other medical imaging modalities and associated contrast media and medicines used in imaging. In addition to these scientific concepts, this module encompasses pathology as encountered in medical imaging, and describes the relative role of the various modalities in the demonstration of these pathologies.  

The module commences with an attendance block at the University of Exeter with an emphasis on face-to-face learning. The module then runs over a 12 month period with two further block attendances across the year for further face-to-face learning. In the non-block weeks there will be protected ‘off the job’ learning (one day (7.5 hours) per week) supported by e-learning materials provided by the academic team. The full calendar of activities and assessment will be made available via the handbook. Annual leave may be booked in accordance with the requirements laid out in the handbook.

Module aims - intentions of the module

The aim of this module is to enable you to extend your knowledge of the essential multi-disciplinary sciences that underpin diagnostic radiography practice to encompass the full spectrum of routinely used medical imaging modalities. 

During this module you will further your understanding of radiation biology and physics to ensure the safe and optimal use of radiation imaging techniques. You will learn about other applications of ionising radiation and be introduced to non-ionising imaging modalities. You will learn about the scientific concepts underpinning image formation and equipment related to these modalities. You will learn about the design of radiopharmaceuticals, contrast media and medicines used in imaging. You will further your understanding of digital imaging as used in the medical imaging department. During this module you will also learn about common pathological processes encountered within medical imaging and gain an understanding of the relative role of different modalities in the demonstration of pathology.

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)

ILO: Module-specific skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 1. Demonstrate understanding of the biological effects of radiation, related legislation and radiation protection as applied to radiography and healthcare
  • 2. Demonstrate understanding of the basis of digital image processing and storage (including confidentiality and security considerations), as used in medical imaging departments.
  • 3. Demonstrate understanding of the physical principles, range and scope of common applications for the range of modalities (interventional, dental, Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, mammography, Computed Tomography, Radionuclide Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound)
  • 4. Demonstrate understanding of quality assurance and quality control tests typically undertaken in both ionising and non-ionising modalities.
  • 5. Demonstrate knowledge of altered states of anatomy and patho-physiology as demonstrated by medical imaging, demonstrating an understanding of the relative role of the different imaging modalities.
  • 6. Demonstrate understanding of principles of contrast media design (ionising and non-ionising radiations), radiopharmaceuticals and medicines used in imaging including methods of administration and interactions with the human body

ILO: Discipline-specific skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 7. Demonstrate reasoning and mathematical skills to support Level 5 work
  • 8. Use appropriate sources of information to develop own knowledge

ILO: Personal and key skills

On successfully completing the module you will be able to...

  • 9. Manage time and, with guidance, prioritise workloads
  • 10. Demonstrate problem solving skills

Syllabus plan

Syllabus plan

Whilst the module’s precise content may vary from year to year, an example of an overall structure is as follows:



Biological effects of radiation at the whole body and cellular / molecular level

Current legislation, need for accurate records and information

Derivation and application of dose reference levels



Digital imaging: acquisition and processing as used in medical imaging departments

Look up tables, histograms and image enhancement including windowing

Cyber security, information governance and General Data Protection Regulations relevant to medical imaging

Digital imaging storage – confidentiality, use of images for other purposes e.g. teaching / study

Digital imaging storage – DICOM, PACS.



2D techniques – underlying science, equipment, typical applications and relative role


Dual energy x-ray absorption (DXA).


Interventional imaging and procedures.

3D techniques (ionising) – underlying science, equipment, typical applications and relative role

Computed Tomography (CT)

Other modalities:

Underlying science, equipment, typical applications, relative role, safety considerations (including guidance / legislation)

Radionuclide Imaging (RNI), 2D, 3D

Positron Emission Tomography (+/- CT)


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)



Range of QA and QC tests typically undertaken in both ionising and non-ionising modalities

Role of QA and QC in ensuring safe practice



Pathology i.e. disease and trauma, particularly as demonstrated on diagnostic images

Axial skeleton: joints, associated musculature and other tissues.

Appendicular skeleton: joints, associated musculature and other tissues.

Thorax and abdomen: principal internal organs.

Neurological and mental health pathologies.



Contrast Media Type i.e. ionic / non-ionic, macro-cyclic / linear

Contrast Media used in inonsing and non-ionising radiation modalities including physical interactions that determine image appearances

Method of administration of contrast media

Radiopharmaceuticals – design and physical interactions

Medicines used in imaging – role, function

Methods of update, excretion and interactions with the human body of contrast media, radiopharmaceuticals and medicines used in imaging



Exponential functions

Logarithmic scales

Interpretation of graphs e.g. rate of change, gradients



Learning and teaching

Learning activities and teaching methods (given in hours of study time)

Scheduled Learning and Teaching ActivitiesGuided independent studyPlacement / study abroad

Details of learning activities and teaching methods

CategoryHours of study timeDescription
Scheduled learning and teaching activities99 x 1 hour lectures
Scheduled learning and teaching activities93 x 3 hour practical sessions in lab
Highly directed study4040 x 1 hour e-learning resources
Guided independent study29Directed reading, private study and revision
This module is delivered as part of an integrated degree apprenticeship programme. The total required study hours for the programme have been designed in accordance with the ESFA regulations.


Formative assessment

Form of assessmentSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Progress Tests 3 x 2 hours 1-10Oral

Summative assessment (% of credit)

CourseworkWritten examsPractical exams

Details of summative assessment

Form of assessment% of creditSize of the assessment (eg length / duration)ILOs assessedFeedback method
Examination (MCQ)1002 hours (120 questions)1-10


Details of re-assessment (where required by referral or deferral)

Original form of assessmentForm of re-assessmentILOs re-assessedTimescale for re-assessment
Examination (MCQ)Examination (MCQ)1-106 weeks after mark release

Re-assessment notes

This programme runs to a non-standard timetable; assessment weeks and Assessment, Progression & Awarding Committees (APACs) for both initial and deferred assessments are held as per the programme’s published timetable.

* The aim of progress-testing is deep learning and long-term retention of material.  Each progress test assessment therefore includes questions from all of the Applied Radiographic Knowledge modules: RAD1001DA, RAD2001DA and RAD3001DA. Each assessment contains an equal number of questions from each module and the pass mark is scaled to reflect the proportion of the curriculum taught at the stage of assessment. Please refer to the 'Assessment’ section on the ‘Diagnostic Radiographer - Programme Information’ ELE page for further details about scaling.


Indicative learning resources - Basic reading

Eisenberg R.L. and Johnson N.M. (2016), Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology (6th edition), Mosby, ISBN 9780323353243 electronic version also available 

Eisenberg R.L. and Johnson N.M. (2016 ) Workbook for Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology (6th Edition) Mosby ISBN 978-0323353250 

Graham D.T., Cloke P. and Vosper M. (2012), Principles and Applications of Radiological Physics (6th edition), Churchill Livingstone, ISBN 9780702052156 electronic version also available 

Carlton R.R. and Adler A.M. (2013), Radiographic Imaging Concepts and Principles (5th edition), Delmar, ISBN 1473720524 electronic version also available

Indicative learning resources - Web based and electronic resources

UK Statutory Instruments (2017), Ionising Radiation Regulations 2017, The Stationary Office, Available from,

UK Statutory Instruments (2017), The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2017, The Stationery Office, Available from, 

UK Statutory Instruments (2018), The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) (Amendment) Regulations 2018, The Stationary Office, Available from,  

The Health & Safety Executive (2018), Work with Ionising Radiation. Ionising Radiations Regulations 2017: Approved Code of Practice and Guidance, HSE Books, ISBN 9780717666621,

Module has an active ELE page

Indicative learning resources - Other resources

  • Carter C. and Veale B. (2013), Digital Radiography and PACS (2nd edition), Mosby Elsevier, ISBN 978-0323086448
  • Blake G., Wahner H.W. and Fogelman I. (1998), The Evaluation of Osteoporosis: Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Clinical Practice (2nd edition), CRC Press, ISBN 978-1853174728
  • R Kowalczyk N. and Mace J.D. (2017), Radiographic Pathology for Technologists (7th edition), Mosby, ISBN 9780323675765, electronic version also available
  • Kim, E. (2012), Handbook of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: principles and clinical applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9789814366236
  • Kremkau F.W. (2016), Sonography: Principles and Instruments (9th edition), Saunders, ISBN 978-0323322713
  • McRobbie D.W. et al. (2017), MRI from Picture to Proton (3rd edition), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9781107706958
  • Powsner R.A. Palmer M.R. and Powsner E.R (2013), Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics (3rd edition)., Wiley Blackwell,  ISBN 978-0470905500
  • Society and College of Radiographers (2019), Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Society and College of Radiographers, ISBN 978-1-909802-31-5
  • Westbrook C. (2018), MRI in Practice (5th edition), Wiley Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-119-39196-8

Key words search

Medical Imaging; Radiation, Regulations, Pathology, MRI, US, RNI, PET-CT, Modalities, CT

Credit value30
Module ECTS


Module pre-requisites

RAD1001DA, RAD1003DA, RAD1004DA

Module co-requisites

RAD2003DA, RAD2004DA

NQF level (module)


Available as distance learning?


Origin date


Last revision date