Dr Talitha Kerrigan (Convenor)
|Number students taking module (anticipated)|
Description - summary of the module content
The brain’s immune response differs to that of other organs, primarily due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and brain cells called glia. These responses are fine-tuned by signals from peripheral immune cells and, more speculatively, influenced by the gut microbiome. Central immune responses are important for maintaining normal brain function, but may go awry in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and depression. The immune responses also support the brain’s recovery from injuries such as those arising from trauma, oxygen deprivation and infection.
This module will explore the current understanding of how peripheral and central immune systems interact to affect operation of the nervous system, paying particular attention to pathogenic mechanisms. It will focus particularly on the diverse role played by glia.
Module aims - intentions of the module
The overall aim of the module is to recognise the role of central immune responses in normal brain functioning and in the development and progression of disease.
Through lectures, technical masterclass sessions and written assignments you will have opportunities to understand central immune responses to infections and trauma of the brain, and how these responses contribute to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. You will appreciate the role of non-neuronal cells found in the brain: astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Key aspects of the associated signalling we explore may include chemokine, cannabinoid and trace amine-associated receptors.
Overall, this module will enhance your transferrable skills by helping to develop your strengths in:
1. Data analysis and Interpretation
You will consider the logic of scientific inference and principles of statistical analysis. You will further develop the skills needed to understand and interpret scientific data by analysing existing data sets, and through the manipulation of new data acquired through supervised laboratory sessions.
2. Applied Research Techniques
You will become familiar with techniques widely used in neuroscience, neurology and immunology to study brain inflammation. Specific examples will include immunohistochemistry, animal models, pharmacological manipulations of glia cells, electrophysiology and current methods of neuroimaging. You will also have the opportunity to apply some of these techniques through masterclass sessions with leading research scientists in the field of Neuroimmunology.
3. Critical Appraisal.
Through formative and summative assessments you will develop your ability to identify, review and appraise scientific literature whilst working as part of the group.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)
ILO: Module-specific skills
On successfully completing the module you will be able to...
- 1. Identify key components of the central immune system and outline their functional significance
- 2. Appreciate cellular and molecular differences between types of brain glial cells, outlining their role in normal and abnormal brain function
- 3. Describe some of the mechanisms through which peripheral immune cells and the gut microbiome can influence brain immune responses
- 4. Explain key cellular and molecular events which occur in the brain immune system following injury
- 5. Evaluate the role of immune responses in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases
- 6. Characterise the role of gut microbiota and diet in driving the brain immune response
- 7. Articulate the importance of immune response for brain repair
ILO: Discipline-specific skills
On successfully completing the module you will be able to...
- 8. Critically evaluate the latest primary research in Neuroimmunology, demonstrating an appropriate knowledge of the underlying research methodology.
- 9. Describe some of the methods used to study central immune responses
- 10. Analyse and interpret histological and electrophysiological data
ILO: Personal and key skills
On successfully completing the module you will be able to...
- 11. Carry out a targeted literature searches using bibliographic databases
- 12. Critically evaluate primary sources of information
- 13. Interact effectively in a group
- 14. Produce clear scientific writing
- 15. Apply skills of critical thinking, problem-formulation and problem-solving to clinical science practice.
- 16. Apply appropriate statistical analyses to different types of numerical data
The module’s precise content will vary from year to year, but the following information describes its typical structure.
A total of fourteen lecture sessions will be delivered, incorporating ten different Neuroimmunology themes. Each week will consist of a one hour lecture, followed by a 1 hour Question and Answer session. The introductory lecture (week 1) will outline the broad aims of the module, its weekly structure, assessment processes and other practicalities. Another lecture will focus on the module’s assessment: writing a research project proposal.
The other 10 lecture themes will cover the following subjects:
1. Glial cells: cellular and molecular differences, biology, techniques used to study them
2. Role of glia in regulating neuronal communication
3. Central immune response to physical damage: traumatic brain injury and repair mechanisms
4. Central immune response in brain development
5. Central immune response in metabolic disease (diabetes, obesity): mechanisms, contribution to disease pathology and aetiology
6. Gut-brain axis in health and disease (degenerative and mood disorders)
7. CNS Autoimmunity (multiple sclerosis): mechanisms, contribution to disease pathology and aetiology
8. Psychoneuroimmunology: seasonal rhythms, well-being, aging, emotions and immunity
9. Circadian organisation of immune responses
10. Central immune response in neurodegeneration: Alzheimer’s disease, mechanisms, contribution to disease pathology and aetiology central immune response in metabolic disease (diabetes, obesity): mechanisms, contribution to disease pathology and aetiology
11. Therapeutic options and visualising the brain
There will be two applied research technique sessions, each lasting three hours. In these you will cover the past, present and future research techniques used in more detail. You will interpret and analyse the expected outcome of key Neuroimmunology methods such as immunohistochemistry, morphology of glial cells and electrophysiological techniques.
1. Research techniques used to investigate neurons
2. Research techniques used to investigate glia
There will be two seminars, each two hours long, which will help you to prepare your assessed research proposal. You will be provided with suggested topics prior the first seminar and will be expected to prepare for the session. At the first seminar you will work in groups discussing material you found and further shaping your proposal. The suggested topics will be broad enough that you will be able to identify, in more detail, material of interest to you and at the same time, share your knowledge with others in the groups.
During the second seminar you will be given feedback on the 1-page proposal you individually prepared ahead of the session. The feedback will be provided by both the peer group and the tutor and discussed at the seminar. During this session you will also have an opportunity to clarify any questions related to the assignment.
Learning and teaching
Learning activities and teaching methods (given in hours of study time)
|Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities||Guided independent study||Placement / study abroad|
Details of learning activities and teaching methods
|Category||Hours of study time||Description|
|Scheduled Learning & Teaching activities||24||Lectures (12 x 2hrs)|
|Scheduled Learning & Teaching activities||4||Seminars (2 x 2hrs)|
|Scheduled Learning & Teaching||2||Research Proposal workshop|
|Scheduled Learning and Teaching Activities||6||Masterclass sessions and science skills workshops ( 2 x 3hrs)|
|Guided Independent Study||9||Lecture preparation|
|Guided Independent Study||9||Lecture review and reflection|
|Guided Independent Study||20||Write-up of 1 page proposal sessions|
|Guided Independent Study||20||Seminar preparation|
|Guided Independent Study||10||Seminar sessions review and reflection|
|Guided Independent Study||20||Revision|
|Guided Independent Study||30||Wider reading & preparation of written assessment|
|Form of assessment||Size of the assessment (eg length / duration)||ILOs assessed||Feedback method|
|Proposal write up||500 words||1-2, 9-10, 13-14, 16||Written|
|Online Multiple choice questions progression test (MCQs)||3-5 questions/lecture||1-10, 15-16||Online model answers|
|Online practice short-answer (SAQs) questions and data handling questions||5 SAQs and 1 data handling question online per theme||1-10,15-16||Online model answers|
Summative assessment (% of credit)
|Coursework||Written exams||Practical exams|
Details of summative assessment
|Form of assessment||% of credit||Size of the assessment (eg length / duration)||ILOs assessed||Feedback method|
|SAQs and data interpretation exam||60||1 hour||1-10, 15-16||Written (on request)|
|Research proposal||40||2000 words||1-8, 11-15||Written|
Details of re-assessment (where required by referral or deferral)
|Original form of assessment||Form of re-assessment||ILOs re-assessed||Timescale for re-assessment|
|SAQs and data interpretation exam (60%)||SAQs & data interpretation exam (1 hour)||1-10, 15-16||Ref/Def period|
|Research proposal (40%)||Research proposal (2000 words)||1-8, 11-15||Ref/Def period|
Please also refer to the TQA section on Referral/Deferral: http://as.exeter.ac.uk/academic-policy-standards/tqa-manual/aph/consequenceoffailure/
Indicative learning resources - Basic reading
1. Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems, 7th edition, edited by Lauralee Sherwood. Cengage, 2009.
Chapter 5: The central Nervous system – most important parts are on Organisation and Cells of the Nervous system (5.1) and Protection and Nourishment of the brain (5.2)
2. Understanding immunology, 3d edition, edited by Peter Wood. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011
Chapter 2: Innate Immunity and the inflammatory response
Module specific reading
1. Neuroglia, 3d edition, edited by Helmut Kettenmann and Bruce R. Ransom. Oxford Academic Press, 2013
Chapters related to astrocyte and microglia biology and function in health and disease (2, 5-6, 8, 11, 22-30, 33, 35-37, 39-41, 44-45, 47)
2. Neuroinflammation, 2nd edition, edited by Alireza Minagar. Academic Press, 2018
Chapters highlighting the role of glia cells in neuroinflammation (26), multiple sclerosis (1-3, 5, 25, 27), ischemic (18, 19) and traumatic brain injury (28), and Alzheimer’s disease (27), and modern treatment strategies of various neuroinflammatory conditions (20, 21).
3. The Oxford Handbook of Psychoneuroimmunology, edited by Suzanne C. Segerstrom, Oxford University Press, 2012. Chapters highlighting the following: Stress and Immunity in Pregnancy, Well-Being, Aging, and Immunity, Positive Emotions and Immunity and Seasonal Rhythms in Psychoneuroimmunology.
All the recommended books are available as an e-resource at the University of Exeter Library. Other resources on specific topics might be recommended by the lecturers and will be added to ELE webpage and included as recommended reading material at the end of each lecture.
Module has an active ELE page
The following modules are recommended: CSC1005 Integrated Human Physiology, CSC1016 Introduction to Neuroscience, CSC2012 Disease, Diagnostics and Therapeutics, CSC2018 Neuronal Circuits. However, students may have covered similar material elsewhere. Students who have not studied the preliminary content should be able to successfully complete this module by undertaking some additional study, but should discuss this further with their Academic Tutor and the Module Convener.
|NQF level (module)|
|Available as distance learning?|
|Last revision date|